CP Biology unit 1-2 terms exam review

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Independent variable

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Biology

9th

Mr. Smith 9th grade

51 Terms

1

Independent variable

variable that is manipulated or changed (X)

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2

Dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that is changed by the independent variable (Y)

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3

Quantitive data

uses numbers to describe what is observed

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4

Qualitative data

descriptive characteristics

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5

DNA

molecule containing the genetic information

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6

Theory

A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data

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7

Characteristics of living things

Reproduce, respond to environment, grow and develop, composed by cells

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8

Evolution

Change over time

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9

controlled experiment

An experiment in which only one variable is changed.

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10

Peer reviews

a process in which scientists examine other scientists' work

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11

Atom

Basic unit of matter (neutral)

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12

Nucleus

Center of an atom

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13

Protons

positive charge (H+)

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14

Neutrons

neutral charge

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15

Electrons

negative charge

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16

Element

A pure substance made of only one kind of atom

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17

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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18

Compound

A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

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19

Ionic bond

the attraction between oppositely charged ions

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20

covalent bond

A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons

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21

Molecule

A group of atoms bonded together

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22

van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

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23

Why is water polar

Because it has positive and negative poles.

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24

Hydrogen bond

weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom (water forms many of these)

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25

Cohesion

Attraction between molecules of the same substance

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26

Adhesion

An attraction between molecules of different substances

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27

capillary action

the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid

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28

Mixture

material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined

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29

Solute

A substance that is dissolved in a solution.

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30

The greatest solvent in earth

Water (bc of its polarity)

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31

Suspensions

mixtures of water and non dissolved material (sand in water)

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32

Acids

pH below 7 and produces H+ ions

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33

Bases

pH above 7 and produces hydroxide ions in solutions

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34

Ph of water

7 (neutral)

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35

Buffers

substances that minimize changes in pH

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36

Polymerization

large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together smaller: monomers larger units: polymers

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37

Carbohydrates

Broken down to simple sugars to provide energy and serve as structure

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38

Simple sugars

monosaccharides

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39

Monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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40

Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen)

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41

Lipids

fats and oils made of CHO (used to store energy)

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42

nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. used to transmit hereditary or genetic information.

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43

proteins

macromolecules that contain nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. made of amino acids

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44

products

ENDING materials in a chemical reaction.

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45

reactants

STARTING material in a chemical reaction

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46

Chemical reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another

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47

activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started

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48

catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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49

enzymes

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions, they are very specific

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50

substrate

the reactants of enzyme-catalized reactions

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51

factors that affect the function of an enzyme

temperature, PH and regulatory molecules

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