Period 2 - 600 BCE-600 C

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Period 2 (Classical Era) Concepts

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50 Terms

1

Period 2 (Classical Era) Concepts

  • standardization of key cultural + religious traditions

  • development of states and empires

  • trading networks

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2

syncretism

putting different practices together and changing/using them in different ways.

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3

ruler of Qin Dynasty:

  • Qin Shi Huangdi

  • “first emperor”

  • brutal leader

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4

legalism

belief that humans are bad and in order to organize them, a central leader must implement strict rules and regulations.

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5

Qin Dynasty believed in ….

legalism - harsh punishments and rules by a leader

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6

bureaucrats

a body of government officials who are not elected but form an administrative policy making group

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7

Qin Dynasty used bureaucrats because ….

  • they would be loyal

  • they are unbiased

  • wouldn’t abuse power

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8

Great Wall of China

  • Qin Dynasty

  • made of mud

  • wide enough for chariots to move on top of it

  • built by forced labor (bad conditions - hot weather, disease, etc.)

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9

Purpose of the Great Wall of China

  • provide defense

  • ensure safety

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10

Qin Dynasty developed by …

  • standardization of everything (money, measures, etc)

  • irrigation was sponsored

  • promoted manufacturing (silk)

  • purpose - organization

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11

Qin Dynasty negatives:

  • attacked chinese culture

  • no independent thinkers

  • rejected confucianism

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12

Han Dynasty

  • after the death of Qin

  • centralized gov’t

  • less brutal punishments and oppression

  • Emperor Wudi

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13

Han Dynasty expansion:

  • expanded

  • brings the Han directly into contact with India/Middle East

  • higher trades

  • more commerce

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14

Emperor Wudi

  • The Han Dynasty

  • most famouse

  • longest reigning

  • established contact with the west

  • enforced peace

  • guided the people to much prosperity

  • Golden Age of China - success

  • fan oof confucianism

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15

Confucius - K'ung Fu-tzu

  • han dynasty

  • civil service exams

  • believed in human virtues and peace

  • scholar

  • founder of confucianism

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16

Confucianism

  • promote social order

  • moral and ethical gov’t

  • humans are good

  • bring peace and maintain order

  • harmony

  • filial piety

  • people are educated

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17

filial piety

the virtue of exhibiting the proper love and respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors

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18

Decline of Han Dynasty

  • people lose the concern of caring because they were in prosperity

  • invasions from central Asia

  • central control weakens

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19

Decline of Qin Dynasty

The First Emperor's (Qin Shi’s) brutal techniques and tyranny produced resistance among the people, especially the conscripted peasants and farmers whose labors built the empire.

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20

Chinese Dynasty

  • Han

  • Qin

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21

Daoism

  • natural flow of life

  • spiritual relative to confucianism

  • life was fregal

  • harmony with nature

  • finding balance

  • no political activity was relevant

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22

“Shi” class

  • confucianism

  • educated

  • gentlemen

  • role models

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23

India’s location benefits:

  • surrounded by water

  • good for crops

  • better protection

  • mountain ranges

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24

Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro

  • India

  • huge population

  • most advanced infrastucture

  • standardization

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25

Aryans

a people who were said to speak an archaic Indo-European language and who were thought to have settled in prehistoric times in ancient Iran and the northern Indian subcontinent

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26

Caste system

  • India

  • organized people in the society by specific classes

  • each person was born in a caste

  • unchangeable

  • changes only through reincarnation

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27

Hinduism

  • oldest living religion

  • entrances many different religions

  • many gods - polytheistic

  • different practices

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28

The Veda

  • stories of gods and standards for human behavior

  • India - Hinduism

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29

Dharma - Hinduism

  • one’s duty or virtue

  • an individual's duty fulfilled by observance of custom or law

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30

Karma

  • every good action follows with a good thing

  • every bad action will follow through

  • what goes around comes around

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31

Reincarnation

Samsara: Reincarnation

  • Hinduism

  • when someone dies, they are reborn

  • bad person in old life = poor servant in the rebirthed life

Moksha: Enlightenment

  • get out of the cycle

  • reaching enlightenment means escaping reincarnation

  • definition - the use and celebration of reason, the power by which humans understand the universe and improve their own condition

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32

Hindu caste system

  • determined by birth

  • born into your role

  • determined social standing

  • unchangeable - unless you are rebirthed

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33

Polytheism

  • many gods

  • Hinduism

  • regulated natural forces

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34

Buddhism

  • India

  • nontheistic - no god or deities

  • obtain enlightenment and reach nirvana

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35

Siddhartha Gautama - Buddhism

  • Buddha

  • wealthy

  • decided to seek enlightenment

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36

Four Noble Truths

  • Buddhism

  • must follow to obtain enlightenment

  • 1. life is suffering (2. 3. 4. etc…)

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37

The Eightfold Path

  • guidelines on how to live a life free of desires

  • 1. right view (2-8 - “Right ______”)

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38

Nirvana

place of eternal rest and escape from reincarnation (Buddhism)

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39

Bodhisattva

one who forgoes nirvana to continue teaching others (Buddhism)

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40

Mauryan Empire

  • mostly unified India

  • large armies

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41

Chandragupta Maurya

  • leader of Mauryan empire

  • relied on her own personal military power and support

  • gave up all wealth (escetic)

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42

Ashoka Maurya

  • grandson of Chandragupta

  • wealthy, lavish lifestyle

  • expanded the empire

  • converts to Buddhism

  • believed in dharma

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43

Edicts of Ashoka

  • being a good person

  • reinforced kindness, religious tolerance hospitality

  • trades and communication improved

  • extensive road networks

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44

Fall of Mauryan Empire

  • Ashoka’s style of governing didn’t work because he had a Buddhism influence

  • falls into separate kingdoms - divided

  • Kushans invade from the NW

  • Buddhism became associated with the opposing side (foreign rule)

  • Hinduism was the most widely practiced

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45

Gupta Empire

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46
  • Golden Age

  • united

  • Indian empire

  • relied on alliances to gain power

  • lost land literature (epics)

  • developments in math/science/medicine/art

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47

Fall of the Gupta

  • invaded by a group of warriors known as the Huns

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48

Silk Routes

  • connection of land and seas

  • Eastern Asia to Mediterranean basin

  • Great Wall extended to protect the trade routes

  • water based traveling - relied on the winds to effectively travel

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49

Trans-Saharan Trade Routes

  • camels were used

  • they are able to navigate and adapted well to the fry environments

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50

Trades

  • amber

  • rice

  • silk

  • paper

  • money printing

  • navigation tools

  • etc…

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