VTNE Zuku Questions

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What is a common long-term problem associated with glucocorticoid administration in dogs?

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Zuku questions I've been asked + some more

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1

What is a common long-term problem associated with glucocorticoid administration in dogs?

Hyperadrenocorticism

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2

How many cc of 5% Ultra-mycin should you give PO for 44 lb. dog, if the dose is 50 mg/kg?

20 mL

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3

What is another name for jaundice?

Icterus

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4

Which of the following statements about propofol is correct?

Causes apnea if given too quickly

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5

According to current American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) recommendations, which three vaccines should pet cats routinely receive in addition to rabies and feline leukemia vaccinations?

Panleukopenia, feline herpesvirus-1, calcivirus

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6

How can laryngospasms be prevented during anesthetic induction in cats?

Pretreat with topical lidocaine

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7

You are called to help examine a six-year-old Appaloosa gelding.

The owner is worried because the horse seems sensitive and head-shy when he has a bit in his mouth.

On physical exam you note a prominent pair of wolf teeth.

What, anatomically, is an equine wolf tooth?

Permanent Premolar 1 (P1)

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8
<p>// A canine vaginal smear is shown below.</p><p>At what stage of the estrous cycle is this dog?</p>

// A canine vaginal smear is shown below.

At what stage of the estrous cycle is this dog?

Estrus

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9

// A six-month-old female spayed Labrador retriever is presented for left pelvic limb lameness of one month’s duration. The owner reports that the dog is slow to rise from a lying position and bunny hops when chasing a ball.

Exam reveals that the dog has decreased muscle mass of the left compared to right pelvic limb. There is decreased weight-bearing on the left pelvic limb and a positive Ortolani sign.

Which of the following statements is correct based on the top differential?

Perform a triple pelvic osteotomy if no coxofemoral osteoarthritis

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10

// A four-year-old male Rottweiler is presented for routine health evaluation.

A heartworm ELISA antigen test is positive.

Where, anatomically, do adult heartworms live?

Pulmonary arteries

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11

What color does a gram-positive bacteria stain on a Gram-stained microscopic slide?

Blue/purple

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12

Ketamine is what type of anesthetic agent?

Dissociative

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13

Which species cannot normally regurgitate or vomit?

Horse

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14
<p>What is wrong with this rabbit?</p>

What is wrong with this rabbit?

Malocclusion

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15

// Which species share a duct for the pancreatic duct and the bile gut?

Cats

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16

Which part is the most distal?

Hoof

Elbow

Hip Joint

Carpus

Hoof

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17

When the blood glucose level exceeds the kidney’s ability to reabsorb, resulting with glucose in the urea.

Glucosuria

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18

The most detailed method for evaluation of acute pain in small animals.

Colorado State University Pain Scale

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19

Which is more severe, periodontitis or gingivitis?

Periodontitis

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20

What is so-called catgut suture material made out of?

Sheep guts

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21

What forceps are particularly good for vascular surgeries?

DeBakey

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22

An incision into the abdominal cavity is called what?

Laparotomy

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23

Which two drugs are contraindicated in animals with a history of seizures?

Acepromazine and ketamine

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24

// Which teeth are x-rayed using the parallel radiograph technique?

Mandibular premolars

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25

What kind of tissues cause the most x-ray scatter?

Thick body parts

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26

// A client brings in her dog who ate a box of rat poison in the last two days. What signs would be expected?

Bleeding, weakness

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27

What treatment in the clinic will make a cat vomit as soon as possible?

Xylazine IM

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28

What is a female pig that has not had a litter called?

Gilt

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29

// Which drug family is most associated with nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) as an adverse effect?

Aminoglycosides

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30

At what age do a cow's first permanent upper incisor teeth (I1) begin to erupt?

Cows don’t have incisor teeth

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31

How long after a booster rabies vaccination is a dog, cat or ferret considered to be currently vaccinated and protected against rabies?

Immediately

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32

What changes to the blood chemistry occurs if you leave a blood sample sitting too long prior to spinning it down and separating the serum from the cells?

Bicarbonate decreases

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33

How common are dental caries (cavities) in dogs?

Uncommon

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34

// Opisthotonus is most commonly seen in what type of trauma?

Blunt trauma to the head

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35

Which teeth are used for tearing food?

Canines

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36

// If an emergency patient is experiencing acute sinus bradycardia, what is the most likely potential cause?

Drug intoxication

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37

Medical term used to describe redness of the skin.

Erythema

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38

What instrument is used in a laboratory setting to separate elements found in blood samples?

Centrifuge

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39

// Where is the parietal pleura found?

Lining the thorax

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40

What is the most common oral tumor in felines?

Squamous cell carcinoma

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41

Abnormal displacement of organs through the muscle separating the chest and abdomen. (Tear in the diaphragm)

Diaphragmatic hernia

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42

Involuntary movements within the body, such as breathing, contraction of blood vessels, and dilation of the pupils, are controlled by what type of muscle?

Smooth muscle

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43

When a horse has an issue with its upper respiratory tract, it may have unilateral or bilateral nasal discharge. What diagnostic test can be used to assess a horse's upper airway?

Endoscopy

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44

Which type of hay is highest in calcium?

Alfalfa hay

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45

// How much of an increase in serum titer would be expected 3 weeks after an acute infection?

4 times

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46

If you take an x-ray of a dog at 300 mA for 1/20th of a second, how many mAs is the exposure?

15 mAs

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47

A 5 year old neutered retriever mix presents with a recent history of poor appetite and dropping food. It is very painful when you try to open his mouth and there is periorbital swelling. It is suspected that he has masticatory myositis. What specific treatment do you expect the vet will start him on while awaiting confirmatory results from the lab?

Corticosteroids

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48

// Which yeast, which has been described as having a footprint-like appearance under the microscope, is found in patients with otitis externa?

Malassezia pachydermatitis

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49
<p>Which of the following choices correctly names the types of leukocytes found in this image of a blood smear from a horse?</p>

Which of the following choices correctly names the types of leukocytes found in this image of a blood smear from a horse?

A basophil and a lymphocyte

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50

What does it indicate if a mare in labor has sweat around her shoulders?

Foaling within 30 minutes

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51

// Which one of the following problems is most likely in a cat with the parasite Ollulanus tricuspis?

Vomiting after eating

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52

What is purpose of the collimator in x-ray machine?

Decreases production of scatter radiation

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53

What does it mean if a cow is multiparous?

Has given birth more than once

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54
<p>What is the most critical problem with this radiograph of a bird?</p>

What is the most critical problem with this radiograph of a bird?

Human hand is in the image

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55

Why is the brachioradialis muscle clinically significant in dogs and cats?

Can be mistaken for cephalic vein in venipuncture

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56

A surgical repair of a patent ductus arteriosus was performed via thoracotomy in a four-month-old Labrador puppy. In recovery, the puppy is found in his cage, crying and whining. His breaths are short and fast. When a technician attempts to comfort him, he tries to get away, cowers in the corner, and cries louder. Which of the following is the best explanation of this scenario?

This patient is painful, pain management is inadequate

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57

Which direction is caudal?

Towards the tail

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58

What kind of problem may result in waxy casts in the urine sediment of a dog?

Chronic renal tubular degeneration

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59

// Which animal normally has cloudy urine and why?

Horses; calcium carbonate crystals

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60

// What is another name for struvite crystals?

Magnesium ammonium phosphate

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61

Abdominocentesis reveals sanguineous fluid. How can you determine that it is fresh blood rather than just hemorrhagic fluid?

See if it clots

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62

Which commonly used anesthetic circuit is made up of a tube within a tube?

Bain system

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63

Which teeth are best x-rayed using the bisecting radiograph technique?

Maxillary incisors

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64

Which of the following patients will benefit the most from the use of pre-emptive analgesia?

Dog presented for ovariohysterectomy

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65

Which anatomic area do these three surgical approaches access in the horse?

Modified Whitehouse

Viborg's triangle

Hyovertebrotomy

Guttural pouch

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66

Which of the following correctly explains triage of emergency patients?

Sorting of patients into groups depending on their need for immediate intervention

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67

// Which one of the following problems is often associated with gastric-dilatation volvulus in dogs?

Splenic torsion

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68

What is the effect of a high-ratio grid on an x-ray exposure?

Fewer x-rays reach the film

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69
<p>You are presented with a cat who looks like this. What is this called?</p>

You are presented with a cat who looks like this. What is this called?

Miosis

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70

Which one of the following abnormalities indicates azotemia in a cat?

Blood urea nitrogen and/or creatinine are increased

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71
<p>What is the function of the objects highlighted by the arrows below?</p>

What is the function of the objects highlighted by the arrows below?

Help clot blood

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72

When evaluating feline reticulocytes on a complete blood cell count, which kind of reticulocytes are counted?

Aggregate

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73

// Which one of the following choices can cause a low CO2 on the blood gas of a dog presenting for emergency triage?

Metabolic acidosis

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74

How much 0.8% NaCl solution must you add to 1 ml of 2% amphotericin solution to dilute it 1:100, and what is the final concentration of the amphotericin solution?

99 ml and 0.02%

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75

If you take an x-ray of a cat chest at 200 milliamperes for 1/10th of a second, how millliampere-seconds is the exposure?

20 mAs

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76

What does creatinine usually measure on a blood chemistry panel?

Kidney function

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77

When is the best time to refill the vaporizer in an anesthetic machine in a small animal clinic?

When the fewest number of personnel are present in the clinic

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78

Hematocrit is another name for what lab measurement?

Packed cell volume (PCV, %)

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79

// Which one of the following lab abnormalities is frequently seen with acetaminophen (Tylenol) toxicity in cats?

Methemoglobinuria (Brown Urine)

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80

What makes accurate determination of avian and reptile white blood cell (WBC) counts more difficult than WBC counts in mammalian blood?

Nucleated red blood cells (nRBC)

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81

// Which of the following problems is best treated with the intravenous infusion of a colloid?

Hypoproteinemia

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82

If a dog has flaccid paresis, what is the problem?

Weak and limp in his rear legs

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83

Which of the following opioids provides good analgesia of long duration for mild to moderate pain in cats and can be given intravenously, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously as well as transmucosally?

Buprenorphine

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84

What is the main difference between crystalloid and colloid types of intravenous fluids?

Crystalloids are electrolytes in water, colloids are crystalloids with high molecular weight polymers added

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85

The vet has asked you to prepare for a pyometra surgery on a seven-year-old intact female Schnauzer. What are you about to help remove from the dog?

Uterus

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86

What condition would be expected to have a positive Ortolani sign?

Hip dysplasia

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87

What is an enterotomy?

Incision into the intestines

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88

What will happen if you hit the oxygen flush button on an anesthetic machine?

The patient may start to wake up

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89

// What fresh gas flow rate is typical of a non-rebreathing anesthetic circuit?

100-300 ml/kg/min

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90

If a vet says she wants to do an abaxial sesamoid nerve block on a horse's distal limb, where might you expect her to inject the lidocaine?

Medial and lateral aspects of limb just distal to the fetlock

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91

In temperate North America, one animal is seasonally polyestrous (multiple estrus cycles) in the winter when the weather is COLD and the other animal is seasonally polyestrous in the spring and summer when weather is WARM. Both give birth in the Spring. Which animals are these?

Sheep and horse

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92

If a cat has a luxated hip, what is the problem?

Dislocation

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93

Which direction is plantar?

Bottom of the hindfoot

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94

What is the amount of expected moisture on a paper testing strip when performing Schirmer's tear test in a normal animal?

15-25 mm

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95

Which choice controls the penetrating ability of an x-ray?

Kilovoltage

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96

What is the common name for Fasciola hepatica?

Fluke

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97

Pentobarbital is the principal active ingredient in euthanasia solutions. \n How does pentobarbital cause death?

Respiratory depression

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98

Which choice might explain why a radiograph comes out very light and washed out?

Focal distance is too long

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99

What are the three most important factors to remember for radiation safety?

Time, distance, shielding

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100

Which instrument is used to cut or bite away small pieces of bone?

Rongeur

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