biology: topic 1

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atrial systole: blood flow

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Biology

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1

atrial systole: blood flow

into right atrium from body, into left atrium from pulmonary vein

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2

atrial systole: pressure

moderately increases in the atria

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3

atrial systole: blood direction

blood fills relaxed ventricles

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4

ventricular systole: blood direction

forced up and out through aorta/pulmonary artert

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5

ventricular systole: valves

av valves shut due to pressure, semilunars open

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6

ventricular systole: pressure

increases rapidly in ventricles

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7

diastole: pressure

high in aorta and p. artery

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8

diastole: chambers

relaxed

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9

diastole: blood flow

into atria and ventricles through p. vein and vena cava

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10

atherosclerosis

condition in which fatty deposits build up on the inner walls of the arteries

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11

atheroma

a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

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12

hypertension

abnormally high blood pressure

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13

process of atherosclerosis

  1. endothelial injury due to high blood pressure

  2. inflammatory response (white blood cells)

  3. cholesterol accumulates, atheroma forms

  4. calcium salts, tissue accumulates, forms plaque

  5. wall elasticity reduced

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14

clotting cascade

  1. injury to endothelium

  2. exposed collagen

  3. platelets rush to form temporary plug

  4. thromboplastin

  5. prothrombin - thrombin

  6. fibrinogen - fibrin

  7. mesh, blood cells trapped, clot formed

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15

factors affecting the risk of cvd

age, sex, genetics, diet, blood pressure, stress, smoking, exercise

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16

adaptations of an artery

elastic fibres for elastic recoil, muscle, folded endothelium, smooth endothelium, narrow lumen

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17

adaptations of a capillary

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18

3 monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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19

maltose

glucose + glucose

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20

sucrose

glucose + fructose

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21

lactose

glucose + galactose

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22

amylose

unbranched, only formed of 1,4 glycosidic bonds, not a straight chain but is a spiral so can REALLY pack together to store lots of energy

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23

amylopectin

branched polysaccharide, 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds. means it can rapidly release glucose, is compact

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24

why is glycogen branched

rapid release of glucose to liver and muscles

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25

starch

  • made of amylose and amylopectin

  • insoluble in water so is a good storage compound

  • alpha glucose

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26

glycogen

  • alpha glucose

  • shorter branches to it is more compact

  • faster hydrolysis of starch in animals as it's more necessary

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27

cellulose

  • beta glucose

  • unbranched glucose linked with hydrogen bonds

  • this prevents water entering so it is an excellent structural protector of cells

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28

why is water a good solvent for transport?

  • high surface tension

  • capillary action due to adhesion

  • forces of attraction between water molecules (cohesion) enables mass flow

  • high specific heat capacity

  • universal solvent/ionic compounds dissolve easily

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29

polarity of water

  • it has opposite charges on opposite ends

  • hydrogen bonds form causing water to stick together

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30

why do animals need a circulatory system?

  • sa:v increases

  • diffusion distance decreases

  • metabolic rate increases therefore diffusion becomes insufficient so a system allows exchange of substances to take place

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31

BMI

weight (kg) / height (m^2)

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32

unhealthy waist:hip ratio

above 1

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33

saturated lipids

found in animal fats, don't contain C=C bonds

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34

unsaturated lipids

found in plants, contain C=C bonds and melt at lower temperatures

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35

intermolecular forces and lipids

weaker in unsaturated fats, the C=C bonds reduce strength of forces by creating a 'kink'

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36

properties of lipids

  • waterproof

  • compact

  • non-polar and insoluble

  • thermal insulators

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37

triglycerides

1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids joined by ester bonds formed in a condensation reaction

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38

triglycerides and phospholipids

one fatty acid is substituted for a phosphate containing group

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39

HDL (high density lipoprotein)

"good" cholesterol - unsaturated fats, (more) protein and cholesterol

  • transports cholesterol from tissues to the liver to reduce cholesterol levels

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40

LDL (low density lipoprotein)

"bad" cholesterol - saturated fats, protein and cholesterol

  • transports cholesterol from the liver to the blood, increasing cholesterol levels

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41

correlation between saturated fats and high cholesterol

this is because saturated fats are in LDLs is casual as cholesterol is involved in plaque formation

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42

anticoagulants

CVD treatment reduce the risk of clot formation

  • may lead to uncontrolled bleeding

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43

statins

CVD treatment reduce blood cholesterol by blocking producing enzyme should be with a healthy diet and causes nausea/inflammation

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44

platelet inhibitors

CVD treatment make platelets less sticky, reduce the risk of atheroma formation can cause stomach bleeding

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45

beta blockers

antihypertensive to reduce heart contraction frequency and power by blocking response to hormones -may increase risk of diabetes

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46

diuretics

antihypertensive to increase volume of urine to lower blood volume and pressure side effect: dizziness, nausea

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47

ACE inhibitors

antihypertensive to block the conversion of enzymes that cause constricted arteries side effects: arrhythmia, dizziness

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48

why does cvd damage heart muscle

narrow lumens or coronary arteries

reducing blood flow to muscles

reducing aerobic respiration

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