Test 4 Architecture Appreciation

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Carlo Scarpa


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Carlo Scarpa

  • 1906-78

  • Italian

  • Brion Cemetery, Treriso, Italy

    • 1964-78

    • Christopher Wren is buried here

<ul><li><p>1906-78</p></li><li><p>Italian</p></li><li><p>Brion Cemetery, Treriso, Italy</p><ul><li><p>1964-78</p></li><li><p>Christopher Wren is buried here</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Tadao Ando

  • 1941-

  • Japanese Architect

  • Self taught

    • began as a carpenters apprentice

  • traveled extensively to study architecture

  • combines modernism with traditional Japanese aesthetics

    • World Trade Memorial

  • note the use of concrete

<ul><li><p>1941-</p></li><li><p>Japanese Architect</p></li><li><p>Self taught</p><ul><li><p>began as a carpenters apprentice</p></li></ul></li><li><p>traveled extensively to study architecture</p></li><li><p>combines modernism with traditional Japanese aesthetics</p><ul><li><p>World Trade Memorial</p></li></ul></li><li><p>note the use of concrete</p></li></ul>

Elizabeth Diller(1954) and Richard Scofoldio(1935)

  • Diller was born in Poland

  • both educated at Copper Union NY

  • begun by constructing “Guerilla Architecture” on vacant land

  • received “Genius” grant in 1999 from Macarthur Fellows Program

  • Key commissions

    • Blur Building - Swiss Expo

    • High Line - New York

<ul><li><p>Diller was born in Poland</p></li><li><p>both educated at Copper Union NY</p></li><li><p>begun by constructing “Guerilla Architecture” on vacant land</p></li><li><p>received “Genius” grant in 1999 from Macarthur Fellows Program</p></li><li><p>Key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Blur Building - Swiss Expo</p></li><li><p>High Line - New York</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Swedish Expo Building

The Blur Building

<p>The Blur Building</p>

Sir Norman Foster

  • Born in Manchester, England

  • school of architecture university of Manchester

  • graduate school Yale

  • extensive travel in US

  • furniture design

  • Key commissions

    • Hong Kong Bank

    • Carre’e d’ Art - Nimes, France

<ul><li><p>Born in Manchester, England</p></li><li><p>school of architecture university of Manchester</p></li><li><p>graduate school Yale</p></li><li><p>extensive travel in US</p></li><li><p>furniture design</p></li><li><p>Key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Hong Kong Bank</p></li><li><p>Carre’e d’ Art - Nimes, France</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Carre’e d’ Art

  • Norman Foster

  • Nimes, France

  • 1984-93

  • reevaluated how site was used

  • gives more sense of place to Maisson Carree

  • exhibition galleries and library

<ul><li><p>Norman Foster</p></li><li><p>Nimes, France</p></li><li><p>1984-93</p></li><li><p>reevaluated how site was used</p></li><li><p>gives more sense of place to Maisson Carree</p></li><li><p>exhibition galleries and library</p></li></ul>

Reichstag Dome

  • Norman Foster

  • Berlin Germany

  • 1999

<ul><li><p>Norman Foster</p></li><li><p>Berlin Germany</p></li><li><p>1999</p></li></ul>

Frank Gehry

  • 1929-

  • born in Canada moved to LA at 17

  • School of Architecture at University of Southern California

  • graduate school at Harvard (Urban Planning)

  • opened his own firm at age 33

  • Furniture Design

  • Key Commissions

    • Guggenheim Museum - Bilbao, Spain

    • Experience Music Project, Seattle

    • Gehry House

    • Project of Note:

    • George Ohr Museum - Biloxi, MS

      • under construction pre-katrina

<ul><li><p>1929-</p></li><li><p>born in Canada moved to LA at 17</p></li><li><p>School of Architecture at University of Southern California</p></li><li><p>graduate school at Harvard (Urban Planning)</p></li><li><p>opened his own firm at age 33</p></li><li><p>Furniture Design</p></li><li><p>Key Commissions</p><ul><li><p>Guggenheim Museum - Bilbao, Spain</p></li><li><p>Experience Music Project, Seattle</p></li><li><p>Gehry House</p></li><li><p>Project of Note:</p></li><li><p>George Ohr Museum - Biloxi, MS</p><ul><li><p>under construction pre-katrina</p></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>

Zaha Hadid

  • 1950-2016

  • born in Baghdad, Iraq

  • trained as a mathematician

  • grad school at the AA (Architectural Association) in London

  • deconstructionist

  • colorful drawings, paintings, and conputer models

  • key commissions

    • Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati

    • Vitra Fire Stati

<ul><li><p>1950-2016</p></li><li><p>born in Baghdad, Iraq</p></li><li><p>trained as a mathematician</p></li><li><p>grad school at the AA (Architectural Association) in London</p></li><li><p>deconstructionist</p></li><li><p>colorful drawings, paintings, and conputer models</p></li><li><p>key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati</p></li><li><p>Vitra Fire Stati</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Deconstruction (Zaha Hadid)

  • designs buildings that look like they explode. Defying gravity and a single point of view, she creates collages of lines and planes that disrupt our usually static viee of cities

Contemporary Arts Center

  • Cincinnati, Ohio 2003

  • first built project by Zaha Hadid in US

<ul><li><p>Cincinnati, Ohio 2003</p></li><li><p>first built project by Zaha Hadid in US</p></li></ul>

Herzog(1950-) and De Meuron(1950-)

  • childhood friends

  • practied in Basil, Switzerland

<ul><li><p>childhood friends</p></li><li><p>practied in Basil, Switzerland</p></li></ul>

Rem Koolhaus (1944-)

  • Dutch - born in Rotterdam

  • major publications “Delirious New York: a Retoactive Manifesto for Manhattan OMA, S, M, L, XL”

  • studied at AA (Architectural Association school in London)

  • key commissions

    • Prada stores

      • Prada Flagship Store

    • Educatorium, Utrecht, The Netherlands

<ul><li><p>Dutch - born in Rotterdam</p></li><li><p>major publications “Delirious New York: a Retoactive Manifesto for Manhattan OMA, S, M, L, XL”</p></li><li><p>studied at AA (Architectural Association school in London)</p></li><li><p>key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Prada stores</p><ul><li><p>Prada Flagship Store</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Educatorium, Utrecht, The Netherlands</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Daniel Libeskind (1946-)

  • born in Lodz, Poland

  • gained US citizenship in 1965

  • key commissions

    • Jewish Museum, Berlin 1998

    • Imperial War Museum, Manchester

    • Jewish Museum, San Francisco

    • Denver Art Museum

    • Freedom Tower, NYC

<ul><li><p>born in Lodz, Poland</p></li><li><p>gained US citizenship in 1965</p></li><li><p>key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Jewish Museum, Berlin 1998</p></li><li><p>Imperial War Museum, Manchester</p></li><li><p>Jewish Museum, San Francisco</p></li><li><p>Denver Art Museum</p></li><li><p>Freedom Tower, NYC</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Freedom Tower

  • David Childs, FAIA (Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill) and Daniel Libeskind

Jean Nouvel(1945-)

  • French Architect

  • educated at the Ecole d’ Beaux Arts, Paris

  • key commissions

    • remodeling of Lyon Opera House

    • Cultural and Congress Center, Lucerne, Switzerland

<ul><li><p>French Architect</p></li><li><p>educated at the Ecole d’ Beaux Arts, Paris</p></li><li><p>key commissions</p><ul><li><p>remodeling of Lyon Opera House</p></li><li><p>Cultural and Congress Center, Lucerne, Switzerland</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Renzo Piano (1937-)

  • born in Genoa, Italy

  • studied at University of Florence and Milan Polytechnic

  • early partnership with Richard Rigers (English)

  • puches limits of building technology

  • maintains control from design through construction

  • key commissions

    • Pompidou Center, Paris 1971-77

      • Menil Museum, Houston, Texas

    • The Shard - London

      • 2012

      • tallest building in the EU

      • offices- restaurants- hotel- apartments- observatory

<ul><li><p>born in Genoa, Italy</p></li><li><p>studied at University of Florence and Milan Polytechnic</p></li><li><p>early partnership with Richard Rigers (English)</p></li><li><p>puches limits of building technology</p></li><li><p>maintains control from design through construction</p></li><li><p>key commissions</p><ul><li><p>Pompidou Center, Paris 1971-77</p><ul><li><p>Menil Museum, Houston, Texas</p></li></ul></li><li><p>The Shard - London</p><ul><li><p>2012</p></li><li><p>tallest building in the EU</p></li><li><p>offices- restaurants- hotel- apartments- observatory</p></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>

Antoine Predock (1936 - )

  • Born in Lebanon, Missouri

  • Columbia University

  • Offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico and L.A. Key Commissions: Nelson Fine Arts Center at Arizona State American Heritage Center in Laramie, Wyoming Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa, Florida

<ul><li><p>Born in Lebanon, Missouri</p></li><li><p>Columbia University</p></li><li><p>Offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico and L.A. Key Commissions: Nelson Fine Arts Center at Arizona State American Heritage Center in Laramie, Wyoming Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa, Florida</p></li></ul>

Chinese Architecture

Best described - DESIGN PRINCIPLES

  • Not styles, periods, dates

  • Principles persist, are revised over time

PROPORTIONS standard rectangular space: jian organized around a pathway/axis

SYSTEMS OF MEANING **Feng Shui: concept of orientation harmony with nature positive energy (chi)

Unity of Structure and Decoration

  • Wooden beams / columns framing are connected w/ elaborate joinery

  • Like classic column capitals - structure and connection

  • WOODEN architecture traditions important structures are made of timber (palaces, temples) brick / stone for tombs, fortresses

  • Architectural continuity, appreciate traditions

  • *Walls are modular

  • Flexible system

  • Made of wood supports*

  • Roof is focus roof develops overhang protect from hot sun heavy rains

Pagodas: Buddhist temples in China

Derived from stupa Pagoda tower part of temple complex Guided pilgrims to site Shape varied according to region, period, and materials available FOGONG Pagoda 1056 Wood structure Upturned eaves

<p>Derived from stupa Pagoda tower part of temple complex Guided pilgrims to site Shape varied according to region, period, and materials available FOGONG Pagoda 1056 Wood structure Upturned eaves</p>

Great Wall

  • Barrier against enemies

  • 210 BCE began, built over centuries

  • 10.000 miles long

  • 15-30° high

  • 15-25' wide

  • Frequent watchtowers

<ul><li><p>Barrier against enemies</p></li><li><p>210 BCE began, built over centuries</p></li><li><p>10.000 miles long</p></li><li><p>15-30° high</p></li><li><p>15-25&apos; wide</p></li><li><p>Frequent watchtowers</p></li></ul>

Temple of Heaven - Beijing

  • Worship hall took place of tall pagoda in temple compound

  • Beijing

  • Vast religious complex (700 acres) symbolizes the relationship between earth and heaven

<ul><li><p>Worship hall took place of tall pagoda in temple compound</p></li><li><p>Beijing</p></li><li><p>Vast religious complex (700 acres) symbolizes the relationship between earth and heaven</p></li></ul>

Forbidden City

  • Emperors live, conduct "business" in city-like group of buildings behind walls

  • Temples

  • Reception halls

  • Service buildings

  • Residences

  • Gardens

Forbidden City: best preserved palace

  • Beijing

  • 600 years old

  • "forbidden" to all but staff and royal family

  • Most important bldg. at north end (feng shui)

<ul><li><p>Beijing</p></li><li><p>600 years old</p></li><li><p>&quot;forbidden&quot; to all but staff and royal family</p></li><li><p>Most important bldg. at north end (feng shui)</p></li></ul>

Japanese Architecture

Traditions in *Wood and Timber

  • Paper screens as walls, tile roofs, straw mats, plaster finish* COMBINATION

  • Indigenous (or vernacular architecture)

  • Imported Styles Simpler lines than Chinese arch.

  • Asymmetry, informal groupings

  • Harmony with nature

    • Four distinct seasons

    • Constant threat of destructive natural forces: earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons, active volcanoes

  • Timber - unadorned / structure is expressed

  • Japanese Cypress - typically used for structure

  • Secondary Woods - Cedar, Cherry, Red and Black Pine

  • Traditional roofs made of straw.

  • Paper made from mulberry bark.

Shinto Shrines

  • Pre-Buddhist, Pre-Chinese influence

  • Shinto is Japan's native formal religion

  • Meant to be temporary structures, Gods visit periodically


large freestanding timber gateway

<p>large freestanding timber gateway</p>

tea houses

  • Tea ceremony for upper classes

  • Preparing and drinking green tea according strict rules

  • Done in special tea houses

  • No decorations, furnishing, no distractions.


  • modular flooring mats

  • 3' x 6'

<ul><li><p>modular flooring mats</p></li><li><p>3&apos; x 6&apos;</p></li></ul>

Islam and Architecture

mosques designed for communal prayer

<p>mosques designed for communal prayer</p>

Muslim art

No figurative (representative people) art on walls art based on flowers, geometric shapes, Arabic script.

dome of the rock

  • Jerusalem

  • influenced by Byzantine architecture

  • shrine for pilgrims

  • center is a sacred rock where Muhammad ascended to Heaven

  • octagonal form

<ul><li><p>Jerusalem</p></li><li><p>influenced by Byzantine architecture</p></li><li><p>shrine for pilgrims</p></li><li><p>center is a sacred rock where Muhammad ascended to Heaven</p></li><li><p>octagonal form</p></li></ul>

Great Mosque of Samarra

  • largest mosque ever built

  • Samarra Iraq

  • cone shaped minaret

    • spiral minaret encircled by ramp

    • horses could ride up

<ul><li><p>largest mosque ever built</p></li><li><p>Samarra Iraq</p></li><li><p>cone shaped minaret</p><ul><li><p>spiral minaret encircled by ramp</p></li><li><p>horses could ride up</p></li></ul></li></ul>

Moorish Architecture

  • Muslims (Moors) came to Spain 8th century

  • looked to ancient Roman architecture

<ul><li><p>Muslims (Moors) came to Spain 8th century</p></li><li><p>looked to ancient Roman architecture</p></li></ul>

Mosque of Cordoba

1st Islamic structure in Europe

<p>1st Islamic structure in Europe</p>

Indian Architecture

various cultural influences: Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, British

Indian Architecture (cont)

  • foreign cultures and different religions have been absorbed and transformed by asian Indian architects

    • Buddhists: earliest structures stone

    • Hindus: ornate style carved in stone pyramid style

    • Muslims: islamic traditions with ornate palaces, mosques, and tombs

    • Europeans: British victorian revival

Taj Mahal

  • National emblem of India

  • 1632-53

<ul><li><p>National emblem of India</p></li><li><p>1632-53</p></li></ul>