Unit 4 - Human Geography - Key Vocabulary

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Fertile Crescent

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Human Geography - Agriculture

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28 Terms
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Fertile Crescent

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia where agriculture first began.

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First Agricultural Revolution

the change from hunter-gathering to living in permanent settlements that relied on planting and sustaining crops

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Cereal crops

grains like wheat, rice and corn that have high yields (many grains per plant)

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Domestication

the process of adapting plants and animals for human use

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Hearth

where something begins, area of origin

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Columbian Exchange

the exchange of biological organisms, mainly foods and diseases, between the Old World of Europe and Africa and the New World in the Americas

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Second Agricultural Revolution

increased production of food as a result of changes in selective breeding and the application of new tools and mechanized labor

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Selective breeding

The use of observation and experiments to naturally breed animals and plants for desirable traits.

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Third Agricultural Revolution

the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on farms to allow commercial farmers to grow more food with less labor

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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

an organism whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering by scientists in a laboratory

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Green Revolution

the spread of Western style agricultural practices to the rest of the world

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Commercial Agriculture

farming done for the purpose of selling products

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Subsistence Agriculture

when farmers primarily produce food for their own family to eat

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Pastoral nomadism

a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers graze herds of grass eating animals, moving from one location to another.

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Shifting cultivation/ slash and burn

where farmers cut down forests and burn the trees to provide nutrients to the soil

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Intensive Subsistence, wet rice dominant

rice plants are grown in nurseries and then transplanted to flooded rice paddies, most of the work is done by people

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Intensive Subsistence

wet rice not dominant - farmers grow cereal crops using subsistence methods, mostly by people and animals

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Plantations

growing cash crops in LDCs using a large labor force on farms mainly owned by corporations

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Mixed Crop and livestock

a form of commercial agriculture where the focus is growing crops to feed livestock for sale at markets

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Crop rotation

changing what crops are grown on a field each year to prevent the soil from using up its nutrients

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Factory farms

large enclosures for feeding livestock with the goal of producing as many animals as fast as possible

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Free range farming

livestock production where animals are allowed space to roam

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Dairying

focused on the production of milk and cheese products

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Commercial grain

wheat and other grain crops are grown for sale at market using large scale farming practices

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Livestock ranching

animals are raised to be sold for their meat, typically on large grasslands

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Mediterranean Agriculture/ horticulture

growing of fruits and vegetables that require warm wet winters and dry hot summers

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Commercial Gardening

production of fruits and vegetables using modern machines and chemicals for sale in markets often far from farms

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Market gardening

producing smaller amounts of fruits and vegetables closer to urban centers for sale in local markets.

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