studied byStudied by 42 People

how many people are injured each year in sport and exercise?


Tags & Description



Studying Progress

New cards
Still learning
Almost Done
84 Terms

how many people are injured each year in sport and exercise?

25 million

causes of injury

  • physical factors

  • social factors

  • stress factors

  • psychological factors

attentional disruption

Stress disrupts an athlete's attention by reducing peripheral attention and causing distraction and task-irrelevant thoughts

increased muscle tension

High stress can cause muscle tension and coordination interference as well as generalized fatigue, muscle inefficiency, reduced flexibility, and motor coordination problems.

Other stress-injury relationship explanations

-Overemphasis on acting tough and a "giving 110%" attitude -Failure to distinguish between normal discomfort and injury pain -"You're injured, you're useless" mentality

3 categories of emotional reactions

  1. Injury-relevant information processing

  2. Emotional upheaval and reactive behavior

  3. Positive outlook, coping

speed and ease with which they progress

what varies widely in a person's typical response to injury?

immediately after injury

what period of time is characterized by the greatest negative emotional reactions?

identity loss

Important part of them is lost therefore effecting their self concept

fear and anxiety

They worry whether they will recover, if re-injury will occur, and whether someone will replace them permanently in the lineup

lack of confidence

Lowered confidence can result in decreased motivation, inferior performance, or additional injury because the athletes overcompensate.

performance decrement

Many athletes who have difficulty lowering expectations after an injury expect to immediately return to a pre-injury level

group processes

Positive forces: group rally each other Negative forces: group loss/disruption

Signs of poor adjustment to injury

-Feelings of anger and confusion -Obsession with when they can return

When abnormal emotional reactions to injuries are identified...

send a referral to a sport psychologist

athletes will not automatically transfer...

psychological skills

3 phases of rehab and recovery

  1. injury/illness phase

  2. rehab & recovery phase

  3. return to full activity phase

specific coping skills

  • goal setting

  • self-talk

  • imagery

  • relaxation training

social support

what is necessary for at-risk athletes?

personality traits

What can influence health outcomes?


degree of emotional instability or stability

explanatory style

a person's habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions: internal/external, stable/unstable, and global/specific

dispositional optimism

the belief or expectation that things will work out positively


An unhealthy compulsion to do things perfectly and having extreme high standards


a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness. high challenge, control, commitment

Implications for neuroticism

  • be prepared for emotional reactions and questioning

  • discuss progress even the smallest of gains

  • help develop stress management and problem-focused coping

implications for explanatory style

  • encourage continued attendance

  • help develop coping strategies to deal with less isolation and feeling overwhelmed

  • provide emotional support

implications for dispositional optimism

  • give objective evidence about the extent of damage/injury to lessen denial tendencies -help athlete develop cognitive management techniques

implications for perfectionistic

  • draw attention to the nature of the demands that are being placed on an impersonal process (therapy) or other people (family)

  • help shift thinking toward desiring vs demanding perfection

implications for hardiness

  • communicate severity of the injury

  • emphasize active communication

  • reinforce personal initiative/active involvement


have been identified as a second to only parents as providers of social support

communication barriers

  • not listening

  • depersonalizing the patient

  • jargon

  • displaying worry


past research looked at confusion, disagreement, and misunderstanding as issues with rehabilitation

negative emotional response

poor perceptions of progress

positive emotional response

perceptions and progress are congruent

rehab adherence

Positive or negative

  • self motivation

  • pain tolerance

  • health locus of control

  • ego involvement

  • trait anxiety

rehab adherence strategies

  • practitioners who are caring

  • assisting in goal setting

  • offering encouragement to patients

  • monitoring progress

biopsychosocial model

a model of health that integrates the effects of biological, behavioral, and social factors on health and illness positive and negative

Return to sport stages model

  1. initial return

  2. recovery confirmation

  3. return to physical/technical abilities

  4. high intensity training

  5. return to competition

implications for athlete stressors

  • addressing issues of competence

  • addressing issues of autonomy

  • addressing issues of relatedness SDT


the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal


generally concerned with planning, organizing, scheduling, budgeting, staffing, and recruiting

prescribed leaders

leaders appointed by someone in authority

emergent leaders

leaders who emerge from the group and take charge

trait approach

A leadership approach that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share

behavioral approach

A leadership approach that anyone could become a leader by simply learning the behaviors of other effective leaders

situational approach

A leadership perspective that effective leadership depends much more on the characteristics of the situation

relationship-oriented leaders

type of leader that develops interpersonal relationships

task-oriented leaders

type of leader that primarily work to get the task done and meet their objectives