SOC 241 - Exam 2

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Group

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34 Terms

1

Group

A gathering of two or more people that meet the following qualifications: They interact and communicate, usually face to face They share at least one common goal They belong to a common unity that exists across time

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2

Primary Group

A unit characterized by: Frequent face to face interactions Strong identification with group Strong affect towards group Long-term duration

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3

Secondary Group

A unit characterized by: Few face to face interactions Weak identification with group Functional Relationships Short-term duration

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4

Impact of Jury Size

Influences representativeness Determines perceived conformity pressures

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5

Group Processes Impacting Jury Decisions

Group Polarization Minority Influence Presence of conformity pressures

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6

Group Polarization

The tendency for individual responses to become more extreme during group discussion

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7

Minority Influence

The impact of a minority subset on the remaining majority of the group.

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8

Probability of Minority Influence being Successfully exerted increases when:

The minority is consistent, persistent, confident, and favoring acquittal

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9

Yale Communications Model

Based on the assumption that we can change attitudes by exposing people to information that is inconsistent with current beliefs. If information is convincing, it leads to attitude change

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10

Before a message can persuade, it has to

Raise a question about a prior held attitude's validity Offer an alternative position and give the audience a reason to accept it

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11

Elaboration Likelihood Model

Endeavors to reconcile much of the conflicting data of past persuasion studies conducted within the Yale Communications Model. It does this by suggesting that attitude change can occur via two cognitive processes (Central and Peripheral)

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12

Central cognitive process

Based on personal relevance of issue/message involvement and high level of processing capacity

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13

Peripheral Cognitive Process

Based on lack of motivation and capacity to process Peripheral cues such as authority, consistency, scarcity, reciprocation, liking, and social proof

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14

Informational Conformity

Yielding to the responses of others based on a desire to produce an accurate outcome For example, we believe a Lawyer when they tell us about a law because we believe they have authority in the subject

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15

Normative Conformity

Yielding to the responses of others based on a desire to be accepted

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16

Conditions that strengthen informational conformity

We are made to feel incompetent We are involved in an ambiguous situation There is the presence of experts in the group

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Conditions that strengthen Normative conformity

We are made to feel insecure The group has at least 3 people The group is unanimous We rate the status and the attractiveness of the group as high

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18

Asch Line Comparison Study

Found that people were willing to ignore reality and give an incorrect answer in order to conform to the rest of the group. Example of Normative Conformity

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19

Reasons why people conform

Informational Conformity and Normative Conformity

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20

Sherif's autokinetic effect study

When observing an ambiguous stimuli (lights), people in a group tend to converge on their estimates. Example of Informational Conformity

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21

Compliance

a type of social influence where an individual does what someone else wants them to do, following his or her request or suggestion.

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22

Foot-in-the-door Technique

Person asks target for small favor Target agrees Person then asks target for a larger favor

Qualifying conditions: Perception of free choice is necessary Initial request must be large enough to elicit self-perception process

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23

Door-in-the-face technique

Person asks target for a large favor Target declines Person then asks target for a smaller favor, which was the original goal

Qualifying conditions: Same individual must ask for both favors (establishes process of reciprocal concessions) Works best with short time interval between requests

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24

Low ball technique

Person gets target to become committed to a decision Person then changes original conditions of decision (usually becomes more costly) For example, shady car dealer or Darth Vader in Empire Strikes Back

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25

Ingratiation Technique

4 Separate Strategies:

  1. Rendering of favors / gift giving

  2. Generating perceived similarity

  3. Self enhancement (bragging)

  4. Other enhancement (compliments)

Person elicits positive sentiment from target using one of the strategies Person then asks target for favor

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26

Counterstrategy for Foot-in-the-Door

Pay attention to your own feelings Ask yourself if, in the absence of your former compliance, would you say yes to this 2nd request singularly. If not, do not comply

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Counterstrategy for Door in Face

Regulate reciprocity: recognize the abuse of the norm of reciprocity when such norms are used to manipulate or trick us If you receive some “unexpected benefit” from another person, remind yourself that one need not match concessions

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Counterstrategy for Low Ball

Learn to separate the reasons behind initial commitments or decisions from ones we later generate ourselves

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Counterstrategy for Ingratiation

Be sensitive to individuals who try to establish immediate rapport with us by: 1) compliments and 2) small gifts Separate our feelings for the person from the decision or action the are trying to elicit from us

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30

Obedience

Studied intensively by Milgram, especially regarding destructive obedience

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Dispositional Factors that influence Destructive Obedience (Milgram)

Gender, pathological underpinnings, lack of knowledge of consequences -- all have similar results No demographic variable identified that factors into this

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Situational Factors for Destructive Obedience

Emotional and physical distance of victim:

  1. Remote - 65% were obedient

  2. Voice feedback - 62%

  3. Proximity - 40%

  4. Touch-proximity - 30%

Physical Distance of Authority: 20.5% Hierarchical scripted role behavior: Doctor/nurse, captain/first officer - much higher rates of obedience

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33

Other factors that impact Destructive Obedience

Legitimacy of authority - is authority rightful and appropriate? Legitimacy of power base - was power of the group obtained appropriately? Legitimacy of demand - is the demand made by authority valid and justifiable?

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34

Four Components of the Deliberation Ideal

Equality (equal participation) and independence of jurors Openness to informational influence/conformity Weak normative pressure (minimal normative conformity) Verdicts based only on evidence generated in court

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