BIOL 2460 - EXAM 2 REVIEW - PARKS - MICROBIOLOGY

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prokaryotes are

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240 Terms

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prokaryotes are

ubiquitous

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anaerobically; obligate

Some prokaryotes may grow _____, only in the gut, or ______ that only only grow in the air

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Mutualism

two species benefit from each other: Population A: benefitted and Population B: benefitted

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Example of Mutualism

Gut nutrient metabolism

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Amensalism

One population harms another but remains unaffected itself: Population A: harmed and Population B: unaffected

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Example of Amensalism

Antimicrobial defense on skin

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Commensalism

One organism benefits while the other is unaffected

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Example of Commensalism

Skin cells as food source

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Parasitism

One organism benefits while harming the other: Population A: benefitted and Population B: harmed

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Example(s) of Parasitism

Leprosy and tuberculosis

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Neutralism

Neither of the symbiotic organisms are affected in anyway: Population A: unaffected and Population B: unaffected

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Example of Neutralism

endospores and vegetative cells

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Resident Microbiome

live in or on our bodies; human microbiome

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Transient Microbiome

temporarily found in the human body; parasitic and pathogenic microorganisms

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Gram (-) Phyla

proteobacteria, spirochete, CFB group, planctomycetes, phototrophic bacteria

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Gram (+) Phyla

Actinobacteria and Firmicutes

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Atypical (neither - or +)

Tenericutes

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oligotrophs that live in low nutrient environments and must have a host to be metabotically active (parasite)

Alphaproteobacteria

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alpha; causative agents for Rocky Mtn. spotted fever and Typhus fever; lice and flees

Rickettsia spp.

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alpha; causative agents for lymphogranuloma venereum (STD)

Chlamydia spp.

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Eutrophs that require many nutrients (copiotrophs) and are difficult to grow

Betaproteobacteria

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beta; causative agents for pertussis (whooping cough), kennel cough, and produces toxins to paralyze lung cilia

Bordetella spp.

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beta; causative agent for gonorrhea (STD)

Neisseria gonorrhea

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beta; causative agent for bacterial meningitis

Neisseria meningitides

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Most diverse

Gammaproteobacteria

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gamma; common infection of wounds, urinary tract, and respiratory tract; strictly motile and aerobic

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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gamma; causative agent for severe pneumonia in animals (passed through bite)

Pasteurella Haemolytica

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gamma; causative agent for upper and lower respiratory infections; does not cause influenza

Haemophilus influenza

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gamma; commonly found in alkaline environments, such as ocean ports and lagoons; gastrointestinal disease, cellulitis, and blood-borne infections

Vibrio spp.

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gamma; causative agent of cholera and common to water contamination, hyper-secretion of electrolytes that causes watery diarrhea

Vibrio cholera

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gamma; causative agent for Legionnaire's disease and common to water contamination; likes stagnant, warmish pools of water

Legionella pneumophila

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Enterobacter Family

large family of enteric (intestinal) bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria and are anaerobes

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Coliforms

similar to E. coli microbes that ferment lactose completely (acid and gas)

  1. E. coli: most mutualistic, some produce shiga toxin

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Non-coliforms

Fermentation of lactose is incomplete or absent

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Examples of Non-coliforms

  1. Salmonella: can have multiple serotypes (strains) that can cause salmonellosis

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Small class and sulfate reducing bacteria

Deltaproteobacteria

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delta; periodontal disease

Desulfovibrio orale

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delta; parasitic to other gram (-); feeds onto hosts' proteins and polysaccharides

Parasitic Bdellovibrio spp.

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delta; soil dwelling "slime bacteria"

Myxobacteria

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Smallest class, microaerophilic (likes small amts of oxygen)

Epsilonproteobacteria

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epsilon; common to food poisoning; infects chickens (C. jejuni) and infects humans via undercooked meat, causing severe enteritis

Campylobacter spp.

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epsilon; commonly beneficial but can cause ulcers and stomach cancer in susceptible people; EX: H. pylori (acid reflux)

Helicobacter spp.

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Gram (-) non-proteobacteria, difficult to stain and culture, axial filament

spirochete

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spirochete; causative agent for syphillis

Treponema pallidum

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spirochete; lyme disease transferred through ticks

Borrelia burgdorferi

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Gram (-) non-proteobacteria, anaerobic and fermentors (like to breakdown plant material)

CFB group

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CFB; gliding system for motility; mechanisms mostly unknown

Cytophaga spp.

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CFB; inhabit mouth and can cause several oral diseases (plaque formation)

Fusobacteria spp.

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CFB; 30% of gut microbiome, lower levels correlated w/ obesity

Bacteroids spp.

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Gram (-) non-proteobacteria; aquatic environments (fresh, salt and brackish) and reproduce via budding

Planctomycetes

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Planctomycetes; Immobile w/ holdfast appendage

Sessile cells

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Planctomycetes; motile, unable to reproduce

Swarmer cells

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Grouped on FUNCTION not taxa, utilize sun as main source of energy via photosynthesis

Phototrophic Bacteria

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Produce O2; cyanobacteria (adaptable, used as biosorbents and human nutrition) and Microsystis spp. (toxic algal blooms that can cause liver and nervous system damage)

Oxygenic

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does not produce O2; purple sulfur bacteria, purple non-sulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, green non-sulfur bacteria

Anoxygenic

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high g+c content (> 50%), soil ecology and contains different peptidoglycans in cw, extremely diverse

Actinobacteria

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actino; acid fast (+) due to mycolic acid in cw; causative agent for tuberculosis and leprosy

Myobacterium spp.

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actino; diaminopimelic acids in cw - forms endospores and palisades, most are non-pathogenic; C. diphtheria is causative agent for diphtheria

Corynebacterium spp.

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actino; filamentous and anaerobic, frequently used as a probiotic

Bifidobacterium spp.

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actino; 1 species, inconsistent stain results, and causative agent for bacterial vaginosis

Gardnerella vaginalis

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low G+C content (<50%); Clostridium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus

Firmicutes

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firm; clostridium; agent for food poisoning and gangrene

C. prefringens

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firm; clostridium; producer of neurotoxin and agent for tetanus

C. tetani

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firm; clostridium; producer for botulinum neurotoxin

C. botulinum

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firm; clostridium; hospital infection, causes severe colitis

C. difficile

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Genus Clostridium:

obligate anaerobes, soil dwelling, common food contaminant, endospore producers

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firm; order: lactobacillales; genera: streptococcus; B-hemolytic cocci associates w/ pus production (pyogenic), strep-throat, can lyse cells

S. pyogenes

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firm; order: lactobacillales; genera: streptococcus; Causes pneumonia, respiratory infections, and other diseases; firmicutes

S. pneumoniae

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Facultative anaerobes, non-spore formers, significant component of gut microbiome; firmicutes: yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, etc

L. acidophilus

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Diplococci arrangement, anaerobic respiration, commensal gut microbe, common UTI pathogen; firmicutes

E. faecium

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bacillus; causative agent for anthrax

B. anthracis

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bacillus; common food poisoning agent

B. cereus

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bacillus; producer of insecticide compounds

B. thuriengiensis

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bacillus shaped aerobes or facultative anaerobes - endospore producers

Genus Bacillus

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facultative anaerobes that are halo-tolerant (salt-loving) and non-motile

Genus Staphylococcus

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staph; common agent of skin infections; some can produce enterotoxins for food poisoning, and some are very antibiotic resistant (MRSA and VRSA)

S. aureus

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staph; common flora on skin; can cause infection to open wounds

S. epidermidis

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Not part of gram (+) or (-); genus mycoplasma

Tenericutes

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Tener; agent for walking pneumonia

M. pneumoniae

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Mycoplasma

No cw and does not retain crystal violet

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Hyperthermophiles living in hot springs and oven vents

Aquificae (Gram -)

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Hyperthermophilic anaerobes; sheath-like outer membrane

Thermotogae (Gram -)

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Polyextremophile (vacuum acidity tolerant), repairs DNA

Deinococci (Gram +)

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All aquatic microbes, many extremophiles

Crenarchaeota Phylum

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cren; thermophiles and acidophiles; facultative anaerobic; used in biotech for production of affitins, which causes proteins to not function together (prions/ heat & acid)

Sulfolobus spp.

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cren; strict anaerobic thermophiles; arguably deepest branching archaea (oldest)

Thermoproteus spp.

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Mostly methanogens and anaerobes

Euryarchaeota

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Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Methanomicrobia, & Halobacteria

3 methanogens

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Protozoa

animal-like, heterotrophic, unicellular, motile, sexual or asexual

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Algae

plant-like, uni or multicellular,

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Plankton

microorganisms that drift or float in water, moved by currents

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Zooplankton

motile and non-photosynthetic

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Phytoplankton

photosynthetic

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Trophozoites

feeding and growth stages

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Cysts

encapsulated stage to protect against harsh environments (dormant stage)

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asexual reproduction

binary fission, budding, or schizogeny (nucleus divides multiple times to form smaller cells)

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sexual reproduction

syngamy (fusing of haploid gametes) or conjugation (cilia reproduce sexually)

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Plasmalemma

protozoan membrane

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Pellicle

membranes with bands of proteins to provide rigidness

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Ectoplasm

a substance supposed to emanate (flow) from the body of the medium during a trance (Outer gel-like layer)

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