chemistry unit. 2 test

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4 ideas behind daltons theory of an atom

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4 ideas behind daltons theory of an atom

  1. elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms

  2. all atoms of a given element are identical, same size, mass, and chemical properties. each element had differ atoms

  3. compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element.

  4. a chemical reaction involved in only the separation, domination, or rearrangement of atoms - doesn’t result in destruction of atoms

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2

law of definite proportions

different samples of the same atom compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass

ex. h20 - ratio: 2o2 :1 H

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3

law of multiple proportion

if two elements can combine to form another compound the masses of one element can combine with a fixed mass of another element are in ratios of small whole numbers

example: h2o2 - 1:2 and 1:3

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4

law of conservation. of mass

matter can be neither destroyed or created

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5

subatomic particles

electron- negative

proton - positive

neutron - neutral

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6

where do u find electrons, protons, neutrons

electrons: outer rings of an atom

protons and neutrons: in nucleus

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7

what subatomic particles contribute to mass

protons and Neutrons

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8

what’s an atomic number

number of protons in a nucleus

each element has its own number, equaled to number of electrons

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9

alkali metals

highly reactive, high thermal and electrical conducted

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10

alkaline earth metals

highly reactive, good conductor of electricity

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11

halogens

all form acids when combined with hydrogen, electronegative, highly toxic

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12

noble gases

least reactive, colorless, odorless, non flammable

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13

what’s a metal

good conductor of heat and electricity

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14

what’s a nonmetal

poor conductor of heat and electricity

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15

metalloid

has properties that’s intermediate of both nonmetals and metals

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16

valence electron

outer electrons of an atom

where?- most outer ring

determine charge of atom

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17

ionization energy, describe trend

amount of energy required to remove an electron

highest on the right side (low to high, left to right)

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18

atomic radius

radius of atom

element with more protons will pull in electrons - opposites attract

less protons pull in less

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19

electron affinity

atom more easily accepts electrons

going more to the right, elements want to fill their shell

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20

what shape does a solid sample of an ionic compound arrange itself into

lattice 😄

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21

cation

positively charged ions, METAL, LOSES electrons

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22

anion

negatively charged ion, usually nonmetal, gains electrons

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