weimar and nazi germany

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Recovering from hyperinflation

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Recovering from hyperinflation

-Stressemann appointed as chancellor in August 1923 -set up Rentenmark (new currency) in November 1923 -value tied to piece of gold -backing from industrial plants -trading restarts

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Locarno Pact

In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France pledged to accept their common border, and Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if either one invaded the other. Other boundary disputes were also settled. Accepted new border with France and to keep Rhineland a DMZ - 5 powers opened up talks of DE membership in League of Nations

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Dawes Plan (1924)

An arrangement negotiated in 1924 to reschedule German reparations payments. It stabilized the German currency and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany. Down to 50m/yr and banks loan money to DE industry. Passive resistance in Ruhr called off and allies got repayments.

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US loans

between 1924-30, DE was loaned 25bn, of which must be repaid immediately if necessary

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Young Plan

(1929) Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr. Headed by US banker Owen Young, reducing reparations to 2bn from 6.6 and stretching repayments to '88: Hitler says passing on penalty to unborn. Lower reparations meant lower taxes

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How Germany recovered

-DE economy flourished due to US loans -workers better off: wages increased & working day at 8hrs -fewer strikes and workers had good relationships with bosses -industrial growth meant more public work schemes and new stadiums/opera houses built -better living standards

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changes to life

-artists comment on issues, freedom of expression -German cinema produces film stars -new design and architecture movement -night clubs across DE

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Jobs and unemployment

1924: at least 4% unemployed 1926-29: reduced from 2-1.3m Unemployment Insurance Act (1927): 16.4m pay 3% in taxes, unemployed get 60mks a week in benefit

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work and wages

-conditions improved -working hours reduced: 50 (25)- 46 (27) -real wages up 25% (25-28)

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housing

shortage of 1m in 1923. 10% of this built by private companies and housing associations

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war veterans and young people

-1920 Reich pensions law: up to 750k war veterans, 400k widows, 200k parents -Education improved and no. of uni students up from 70k ('14) to 110k ('28)

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women and politics

The social democrats came to power 1918, gave women right to vote. treated equal as men. Women voters were 90%. 1932, 112 women elected to the Reichstag, almost 10% of members were female. Marriage was now an equal partnership. Women should be able to enter all professions on an equal basis with men- article 109 of Weimar constitution

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women and employment

-decreased from 75% in '18 to 36% in '25 -article 109 not enforced rigidly: women paid 33% less, had to give up work after marriage, few in high status jobs (33 female judges in '33) -booming retail & service jobs, '25-'32 no. of doctors doubled -hostility: unions male dominated, double earners frowned upon

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women and leisure

1920s bought greater financial independence. they were called 'new women' who bought more clothes and went out more. expressed their independence by behaviour, had short hair, more make up, jewellery and more revealing clothes. the smoked and drank more and went out unaccompanied. less interested in marriage and families. some people (mainly men) believed it threatened to change social aspects, motherhood, good housekeeping. Birth rate was falling 1913 = 128, 1925 = 80. Divorce rate rising 1912 = 27, 1925 = 60

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cultural changes

-Bauhaus movement: style to see beauty in technology and simple lines & grants for galleries, theatres, orchestras, libraries & museums from Gov. -artistic changes because old regime gone, new Gov encouraged free speech & economic recovery created wealth to finance arts -3 new movements: objectivism, life as it is; modernism, embrace future and see beauty in industry/technology/cities; expressionism, reflects feelings and thoughts of artists

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Art

Weimar artist showed everyday life through their work. They had not done this before, e.g Otto Dix and George Grosz. Eg, Grey Days, which reflects the boredom of the people

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Cinema

Weimar Germany had what is said to be the golden age of cinema for the country in its history with the most technically advanced films of the time being produced there. By 1932, over 3800 cinemas in Germany. Popular new genres included sci-fi and horror

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opposition

-not all liked changes: 'new women' disliked -Extreme parties critical: Communists say money should be used to help people and Nazis say it goes against traditional values

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problems in 1918

-Spanish flu killed up to 600k in Europe -strikes, power cuts, fuel shortages -transportation problems, factories closed -food supplies low, most adults ate less than 1000kcal/day, rationing -army refused to fight on 9th Nov, Kaiser Wilhelm II lost support and fled to Holland on 10th -shortages of soap, medicine, clothes & shoes -Kiel mutiny when ordered to fight GB navy, suicide mission -caused revolution and new Gov created (Weimar Republic)- challenges: uprisings, overthrows, economic challenges -worsening living conditions: costs, disease, houses, food -conditions becoming increasingly difficult

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effect of WW1 on morale

-thought they'd win at start -1.1m troops fought, 2m deaths, 4m injured (55% casualties) -When US joined, war turned against DE after being stuck in long-drawn conflict -DE felt sorrow as most affected by war losses nothing but more harm

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effect of WW1 on casualties

-highest no. of deaths per country: 2m -DE blamed Gov, army leaders, low morale and want answers to how they were so greatly impacted

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effect of WW1 on blockade

-GB navy blockaded German coast, so important supplies not delivered -serious food shortages by 1918, causing 750k deaths -some ate domestic animals to live -German people angry due to malnutrition/starvation

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effect of WW1 on money

-$39bn spent on war, more than other countries -Germany spent all money on this for no positive impact

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effect of WW1 on revolution

-Germany should be democratic - US, UK & FR may treat with DE -new Gov, parliament, parties, change wanted to overthrow Kaiser -Navy striked in October 1918 and marched to Berlin with unhappy civilians - most protests in Munich and Hanover -4th Nov: Kaiser resigned -Germany happy they've succeeded in their revolution and got rid of Kaiser whose fault it was, yet worried on who was going to run their country

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9th November

Kaiser's chancellor von Baden abdicated and gave office to Ebert

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10th November

Ebert makes agreement with General Groener for army to work with Gov to keep communists out of power. Ebert suspended parliament and named 6 politicians to form Council of People's representatives to head Gov of country until there's a new constitution.

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11th November

Ebert's representative, Erzburger signed armistice, formal agreement to end WW1

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setting up Weimar Republic

1)Ebert kept civil servants in roles to run important systems, eg schools and hospitals 2)Army used to keep control 3)Businesses assured they'd keep private (not nationalised) 4)Trade unions promised they wanted workers to have rights, eg 8 hour days

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National Assemby

-took control of Germany in 1919 -national elections to select a National Assembly to create a new constitution -elections took place on 19 January 1919 -82% of electorate voted -SPD gained 40% of vote, Centre Party 20%

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President

-head of state -head of Weimar Republic -elected every 7 years -played no part in day-to-day politics -had important political power

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Government

-Chancellor & Cabinet -Chancellor, head of Government, elected by President, chose Government ministers -Cabinet: most important ministers work closely with chancellor, main decision-making part of Government

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Parliament

-Reichstag and Reichsrat, laws had to pass through all -Reichstag: more powerful, controlled taxation, directly elected by people every 4 years -Reichsrat: elected every 4 years, represented regions of Germany, each region sent representative, depending on size

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electorate

all men and women over 21

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strengths of Weimar Republic

-most democratic country in Europe -everyone over 21 can vote -no one had too much power in theory -constitution: President elected by people -Chancellor decided which laws to pass and must have agreement of Reichstag

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Weaknesses of Weimar Republic

-Coalition governments always arguing: 9 1919-23 -Weimar Republic created in emergency out of violence: unpopular -Article 48: In an emergency, president could rule by decree (dictatory and all-powerful) -proportional representation fair but lead to weaker government

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treaty of versailles

-Jan '19: France, Usa and Britain met near Paris -meeting to agree peace terms in Europe after WW1 -terms of treaty agreed in June '19 -Germany only allowed to observe and punished by treaty

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why the treaty of Versailles was unpopular

-terms shock: not surrendered -11th Nov '18: 2 days after abdication, Erzberger signed armistice -agreement to stop fighting: people wanted peace and assumed it'd be fair

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armistice

-stop fighting: relief due to damage WW1 had inflicted on Germany -believed to be fair based on peace plan proposed in Jan '18 by Wilson called the '14 points' -German people thought they wouldn't be punished for Kaiser's decision -Germany suffered just as much or more than other countries

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Diktat

-Germans assumed they could negotiate but allies didn't allow German officials to join discussions -Germans called it a Diktat - dictated peace -15 days to make comments and ask for concessions then war resumed -Germany forced to accept all terms of treaty, signed by Ebert's government 28th June1919

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Financial terms

-total responsibility, War Guilt Clause (Article 232) -£6.6bn in compensation to cover war damages and other allied losses -German economy in such a poor state it couldn't afford payments

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military terms

-army could have up to 100k soldiers and navy up to 15k sailors -no airplanes or submarines and 6 battleships allowed -forbidden to buy weapons or other war material from other countries -Allied army occupies Rhineland (DMZ) for 15yrs, no Germany troops allowed

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Land terms

-lost all colonies -North Schleswig given to Denmark -Danzig (main trade port) became free city by League of Nations -Poland given baltic and corridor, cutting off East Prussia from Germany -Posen (farmland) given to Poland -Saar coalfields given to France for 15 years -DMZ: Rhineland -Eupen and Malmedy given to Belgium -New Gov met in Weimar -Germany forbidden to reunite with Austria (Anschluss) -Alsace-Lorraine given to France, they lost it in 1871 -13% of German land - 70k km where 6m people lived

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Dolschstoss

-stab in the back myth -German people didn't believe they'd lost -Hitler (a critic) said the army had been betrayed by Weimar politicians who signed armistice and treaty (November Criminals) -Ebert said in Dec '18 that 'No enemy defeated you' -Republic weak politically and economically -Treaty caused resentment for those who signed it - November Criminals, which was used by Hitler to discredit Republic

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Communists

-KPD & USSR -wealth shared equally, all wealth owned by state on behalf of people, only communist parties allowed in elections

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Fascists

-Nazi Party -one strong leader, extreme nationalism, militarism, racial purity

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moderate parties

-ran Weimar republic -SPD, DDP, DVP -3 main parties had 45% (moderate), extremists 20%. However, moderate parties struggled to form majority coalitions

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Spartacist Revolt

-1919 -left wing group directly supported by USSR -led by Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebknecht -membership rose to 400k -Ebert sacked police chief Eischorn & 100k workers protested in streets against Ebert: took over Government newspaper and organise general strike -Ebert asked Freikorps (ex soldiers) to stop uprising: by jan '19, Freikorps had murdered leaders and stopped protest

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when was the Kapp Putsch?

1920

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What happened at the Kapp Putsch?

-by 1920, they couldn't control Freikorps -go against Government as they feared unemployment and 5k armed men march on Berlin -Rebels took control of city - put forward Kapp to lead -declared new Government in Germany and invited Kaiser to return -members of Gov fled and couldn't stop revolt: more went on strike -Essential services (gas, electricity, transport) stopped -4 days later: Kapp realised he couldn't run Germany -Kapp fled, caught put in prison and dies -Rebellion collapses and Weimar ministers return

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political assasinations

-Hugo Hasse: one of Ebert's council Representatives killed in '19 -Erzburger: politician who signed armistice shot and killed -Walther Rathenau: Foreign minister machine gunned and killed in '22 -between 1919-22, there were 376 politically motivated murders

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prices of bread

March 1919: 1 mark June 1923: 1,465 marks November 1923: 200bn marks

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inflation

an increase in prices of goods and services

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hyperinflation

rapidly accelerating inflation where prices rise 10 or 100-fold in a month

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what caused hyperinflation?

-shortages in Ruhr caused prices to increase -Gov needed to pay debts but unemployment meant they received less tax, 1/4 of what's needed -Gov prints extra money - 300 paper mills and 2000 printing shops -Extra money initially helped but increased inflation -vicious cycle: more money causes price increases, so more money printed (hyperinflation)

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effects of hyperinflation

-normal life impossible: money pinned to letters as stamps, carried baskets and wheelbarrows of money -workers paid 2x a day to buy things before price rises -some shops didn't accept money but adopted bartering -food gets stolen -shortages as imports collapse: foreign suppliers don't accept mark as it's worthless, so goods dry up in supply -savers - those who saved and put money in the bank found their money to be worthless - middle class worst affected

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benefits of hyperinflation

-borrowers with loans found what they owed written off -people hoarded goods and held for high prices -value of goods for foreign visitors worth more

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damage of hyperinflation

1919: Freikorps rescued the Gov 1920: Workers' strikes 1923: Weimar Gov shown to be weak Gov killed Germans to stay in power, middle class had suffered from economic ruin, extreme parties gain popularity: clear, urgent action needed

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architecture

Mendelsohn designed Einstein Tower and observatory in Potsobim, shaped like a rocket

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nationalist

an advocate of national and political independence of or a strong national government and protection from other countries

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socialist

person wo believes economically valuable property or resources should be owned by public or state

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orator

a person who delivers a speech or oration and appeal to many people because he said what they wanted to hear

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political party

political organisation ran by people with certain beliefs/ideas on how a country should be run

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Adolf Hitler

-born in Austria 1889, father worked for Gov, mum died from cancer when he was 18 (belief it was caused by Jewish doctor) -failed at school, became a talented and unsuccessful artist: was artist and road sweeper (no. of jobs) -Hitler joined army for WW1, brave soldier, injured twice, got iron cross -Hatred pushed him into politics: infuriated by Treaty of Versailles and Germany's defeat in WW1

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How Hitler rose to power

-creation of SA -Designing of Nazi emblem -Charisma -His supporters

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creation of SA

-initially faced opposition from other parties and Nazis, which caused violence -Created Sturmabteilung (SA), his own private army to deal with it -featured ex-soldiers with an axe to grind -reputation grew quickly due to repeated violence at events -Hitler could remove opposition swiftly, which faded quickly due to culture of fear SA created

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designing of Nazi emblem

-lot of thought into its symbolism -recognised for need to be memorable, made it infamous -flag and swastika made Nazis into a household brand, not party -Hitler propelled party into popularity stakes, membership quickly rises

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Charisma

-Hitler very charismatic -excellent orator and drew crowds to speeches and rallies -increased Nazi audience, could convey ideas to masses -no other party had a 'hypnotic' speaker -support for party gently increased

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Hitler's supporters

-when he became leader in '21, he surrounded himself with loyal supporters and rewarded them with power within the party -surrounding himself ensured his position was safe, delegates most dirty work -creates competition in the Nazi Party with several supporters using for power, caused party to escalate policies and become more extreme

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Hitler's closest supporters

-Ernst Rohm -Hermann Goering -Rudolf Hess -Julius Streicher

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Ernst Rohm

scar faced, bull-necked soldier

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Hermann Goering

wealthy hero of German Air Force

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Rudolf Hess

wealthy academic, became Hitler's deputy

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Julius Streicher

founder of Nazi paper 'Der Sturmer'

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25 point programme

-contained nationalist and socialist policies -Nationalist emphasise: race, expansion, armies and international relations -Socialist emphasise: state controls over living conditions and economy

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was the party negative?

Yes, because: -it was built on protest and resentment as shown by programme and lead officials -incorporates own ideas: frustration and hatred Jews and dislike of parliamentary democracy -dependent on Hitler's speaking skills

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Hitler's Congress

-start of complete control over the Nazi Party's structure -persuaded members to voluntarily give up rights to accept new framework of discipline and obedience to Hitler -made a promise to help bring down Weimar Republic

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Reorganisation of Nazi party

-new HQ in Munich -Party secretary and treasurer appointed to raise funds -Party became mini-state with 'experts' in each area (eg education) -New Women's Group: 'German Womens' Order' -New Children's Group: 'Hitler Youth,' 'School Pupils' League'

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Creating a national Nazi Party

-created a system of Gaue in 35 regions, with each region led by a Gauleiter -Every area contained a Nazi ready to campaign -Hitler persuaded businessmen to loan Nazis money to campaign and promised to control unions if elected -1925: replaced Rohm as SA leader, forced to find work abroad, returned in 1930 -Set up new security group (SS), specially selected and trusted as his personal bodyguard: Himmler made leader

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split in Nazism

-Northern (workers) Gauleiters liked Socialism -Southern (farmers) Gauleiters liked Nationalism

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Bamberg Conference

-1926 -Hitler spoke for 5 hours to persuade Northern leaders -Made North feel like Communists (enemies) -Goebbels switched sides to Hitler and he regained control of party

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Wall Street Crash

-September 1929: share prices crashed -24th Oct: 13m shares sold -Shares worth $20k in morning worth $1k by afternoon -Investors lost £4bn in a week -had a domino effect: resulted in the Great Depression

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Economic effects in Germany

-German banks had invested in US banks -people feared the money was unsafe in banks and queued to cash out: banks ran out of money -German civil servant bank went bust = people lost their savings -Banks recalled loans in business to stay afloat, causing businesses to cut production or close -Unemployment increases and industrial output decreases

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Unemployment

-Companies struggle to sell goods abroad, sales fall, more sacked -unemployed cannot afford to buy things so other companies' sales fall, so others are sacked - large increase in unemployment -Industrial Output: 1929-30, 10% down; 1929-31, 30% down; 1929-32, 40% down. -Unemployment: Sep 29, 1.3m; Sep 31, 4.3m; Sep 32, 5.1m; Jan 33, 6.1m

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effects of unemployment

-Jan '33: 6m unemployed, 50% of 16-30yr olds, 60% of uni graduates -Gov cannot afford to pay unemployment benefit -taxes raised and benefits cut: more anger -Savers: lots used shares and lost money -Workers: lucky kept jobs but wages cut, real wages down 30% -Homelessness rises, shanty towns develop, anger and boredom increase levels of violence, up 24% in theft arrests

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Bruning

-Chancellor from 1930-32 -proposes higher taxes to pay for unemployment benefit, but for limited time -pleases no-one: Right Wing opposes taxes, Left Wing opposes cuts to benefits -Social Dems wouldn't support him and lost by 256-193 votes, Reichstag crippled -Nazis gained more seats so they oppose gov and system collapsed -relied on Article 48 (emergency power) to rule -Resigned in May '32

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rise of extremes

-Gov lost control and more people suffered: so, they voted extreme -Communists: KDP gained 15% in votes in '32; largest Communist group outside Russia -Nazi Party: Middle and Upper Classes turn to NSDAP in retaliation so vote grew quickly- by 1932, the Nazis had 230 seats (608 total and 305 for majority), close to gaining power -Nazi Party had most seats in Reichstag - 230 (+123), 37% of vote -Social Dems have less at 133 (-10), 21.6% of vote

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why working classes voted for the Nazis

-Policies appealed to them: supported traditional German values and aimed to make Germany stronger -promised "work and bread" via posters -wasn't always successful

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why young people voted for the Nazis

-party excited people: rallies colourful with atmosphere -Hitler's speeches attracted youth members because they promised more and stirred

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why women voted for the Nazis

-play traditional role in society: wives and mothers -propaganda appeals to women -voting for Nazis best for country and families, attractive

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unity

-targeted support from sections of society and whole nation: new for German politics and helped their growth

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why middle classes voted for the Nazis

-professionals with land, businesses and savings -1929-32: left moderate parties and switched to Nazis -Great Depression meant many lost savings or businesses, Hitler strong to help Germany recover -afraid of growing KDP party who wanted to abolish private ownership - Nazis strong in order to protect them -moral decline under Weimar Republic (more drinking and sexual openness) and Nazis would return to traditional German values

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appeal of Hitler and SA

-saw Hitler as strong leader who would: restore law and order, force other countries to scrap Treaty of Versailles and treat Germany fairly - very popular -large public presence: spoke throughout country, Nazi posters everywhere, used aeroplanes in '30 & '32 election campaigns -SA seemed disciplined, organised, reliable: during unrest, strong enough to stand up to foreign powers -SA disrupted opposition parties had stronger army than KPD, with 400k stormtroopers in 1930 -1930 & 1932 elections violent: intimidated opposition, disrupted rallies, in a clash with KPD near Hamburg, 18 people killed

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why big businesses voted for the Nazis

-wealthy industrialists supported national party - powerless to solve economic problems -Hitler persuaded them the NSDAP was the best hope of protection from rise of Communists -Nazi finances benefitted from wealthy businessmen: Bene and Krupps poured money into the party -National party leader allowed Goebbels to use his newspaper for Nazi propaganda against KDP

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94

When did the 1932 Presidential elections take place?

March and April

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Results of 1932 presidential elections

-Hitler: 36% of vote -Hindenburg: re-elected with 52% of vote

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Bruning's key policies

-banned SA and SS -wanted to buy land from large landowners to house poor -May '32: lost Hindenburg's support and resigned as Chancellor

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97

When did Von Papen become Chancellor?

30th May 1932

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How Von Papen tried to stabilise Germany

-if they get Hitler on side, it'll stabilise the Republic -Hitler agreed to support if they lift ban on SA and SS -Von Papen took over

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99

Why did Hitler believe he should be Chancellor?

received 38% of vote in Germany and gained a majority: he deserves job not Von Papen

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100

What happened in Nov 1932?

-Hindenburg dislikes Hitler and refuses to make him Chancellor -Von Papen gambles and holds another election -He hoped Nazi support would fall but it didn't by much - Nazi party still majority in Reichstag

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