Human Communications (CH1-CH5)

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the process nature of communication

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Psychology

54 Terms

1

the process nature of communication

our interactions with others are ongoing and dynamic

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2

systems

communication takes place in this and consists of interrelated parts that affect one another

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3

openness

the extent to which systems interacts with its surrounding environments

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4

content

levels of meaning, the literal message

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5

relationship

levels of meaning, expresses the relationship between communicators

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6

linear model of communication

who? says what? in what channel? to whom? with what effect?

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7

difference between linear model

person is only a sender or a receiver and that receivers passively absorb senders messages

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8

difference between interactive model

occurs through media to allow multiple people to send information back and forth

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9

noise

anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication

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10

mead and humanity

We develop our personal identities through the process of interacting with others In our earliest years, our parents told us who we were: "You're smart," "You're so strong," "You're such a clown." We first see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form the foundations of our self-concepts. Later, we inter-act with teachers, friends, romantic partners, and co-workers who communicate their views of us. In addition, we learn who we are and how others perceive us as we engage mass communication and social media

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11

definition of communication

a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings

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12

Harold Laswell model

who communicator, says what message, in which channel medium, to whom receiver, with what effect effect

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13

Wilbur Schramm model

message, decoder receiver encoder, feedback, encoder source decoder

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14

ethos

proof-based on speakers credibility. based on trust, worthiness, expertise, and goodwill.

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15

pathos

proof-based on appealing to listeners emotions

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16

logos

proof-based on logic and reasoning

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17

Micheal Foucault and power

deeply concerned with who isnt allowed to speak in a society. specifically, illuminated how culturally entrenched rules define who gets to speak to whom we listen, and whose views count as important

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18

textual analysis

is the interpretation of symbolic activities

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19

qualitative research

interpretive techniques including textual analysis and ethnography used to understand the character of experience, particularly how people perceive and make sense of communication

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20

rhetorical criticism

the process of examining a text to see how it works communicatively

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21

mediated communication

Any communication that is carried out using some channel other than those used in face-to-face communication.

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22

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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23

perception

active process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities

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24

selection

factors that we perceive / stimuli in our surroundings (smells, noises, body, etc.)

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25

personal construct

mental yardstick that measures a person or situation along a bipolar dimension of judgement

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26

cognitive schemata

mental structures people use to organize and interpret experience

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27

sterotypes

predictive generalizations about people and situations

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28

scripts

define expected/appropriate sequences of action in certain settings

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29

prototypes

a knowledge structure that defines most representative example of a category

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30

self-serving bias

to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific, external influences beyond our control

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31

positive visualization

a technique used to enhance success in a variety of situations by teaching people to visualize themselves being effective and successful

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32

empathy

the ability to feel with another person. to feel what he/she/they feel in a situation

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33

culture influences and individualism

the beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a group of people

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34

arbitrariness

language is arbitrary. verbal symbols are not intrinsically connected to what they represent

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35

arbitrary

random or not necessary. symbols are this because there is no need for any particular symbol to stand for a particular referent

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36

language is abstract

words are not the phenomena to which they refer. stands for phenomena (ideas, people, events, objects) but they are not things they represent

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37

institutional facts

meanings people assign to brute facts that are based on human interpretation

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38

brute facts

objective, concrete phenomena

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39

regulative communication rule

shared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations

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40

constitute rule

communication rules that specify how certain communicative acts are to be counted

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41

punctuation

defining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes. its subjective and not always agreed on by those in the interaction

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42

totalizing

responding to a person as if one aspect of that person were the total of who the person is

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43

loaded language

an extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and thus meanings

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44

nonverbal communication

All forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements.

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45

percentage of total communication

65 to 95 percent of total meaning of communication

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46

nonverbal behavior

repeating verbal messages, highlight verbal communication, compliment or add to words and contradict verbal messages

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47

five principles of nonverbal communication

  1. nonverbal communication is continuous

  2. multi channeled

  3. conscious / intentional + unconscious / unintentional

  4. ambigious

  5. can occur face to face + through mediated platforms

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48

responsiveness

we use eye contact, inflections, facial expressions, and body posture to show interest in others

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49

regulates interaction

nonverbal communication regulates interaction. westerners invite specific people to speak by looking at them, yet eye contact is used less to regulate interaction in a number of cultures. although we're usually unaware of how nonverbal actions regulate interaction, we rely on them to know when to speak and when to remain silent

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50

liking

indicator of whether we feel positive or negative (ex: smiles or frowns)

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51

power and its expressions

nonverbal behaviors to assert dominance and to negotiate status. (ex: men use more space, greater volume, and forceful gestures to assert their ideas)

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52

kinetics

face and body motion

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53

haptics

touch

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54

olfactics

smell

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