APUSH CH 23-29

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U.S. entry into WWII:

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U.S. entry into WWII:

Refers to the United States joining World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.

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Bataan Death March

Refers to the forcible transfer of approximately 75,000 Filipino and America prisoners of war by the Japanese during WWII after the battle of Bataan.

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The Allied invasion of Normandy, France on June 6, 1944, during WWII, which marked a major turning point in the war against Nazi Germany.

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Atomic Bomb

The development and use of atomic bombs by the United States during WWII, resulting in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. (Project Manhattan)

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V-J Day

Stands for Victory over Japan day, which celebrated the end of WWII following Japans surrender on August 15th, 1945

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Harry S. Truman

The 33rd President of the United States, who assumed office upon the death of FDR and made the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan.

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Selective service act

a federal law enacted in 1917 and updated in 1940 that established the draft during times of war or national emergency

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concentration camps

Refers to the internment of Japanese-Americans in the United States during WWII under the guise of national security.

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Executive order 9066

An order issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942, authorizing the internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII.

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code talkers

Native American soldiers who used their tribal languages as unbreakable codes during WWII, aiding communication in the war effort.

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The Japanese city that was devoted by the first atomic bomb dropped by the U.S on August 6, 1945

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Refers to the bombing of Dresden, Germany by allied forces in Feb 1945 during WWII

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Korematsu V U.S

A Supreme Court case in 1944 that upheld the constitutionality of Japanese-Americans interment during WWII

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Gideon V Wainwright

A landmark Supreme Court case in 1963 that established the right to legal counsel for criminal defendants

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United States v Nixon

A Supreme Court case in 1974 that ordered President Richard Nixon to release the Watergate tapes, leading to his resignation

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Iron Curtain Speech

A speech delivered by Winston Churchill in 1946, highlighting the division between Western Europe and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

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Marshall Plan

An initiative proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947 to provide economic assistance to Western European countries after WWII.

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Berlin Airlift

The transportation of supplies by the United States and its allies to West Berlin during a Soviet blockade in 1948-1949.

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22nd Amendment

Ratified in 1951, this amendment limits the President of the United States to two terms in office.

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24th Amendment

Ratified in 1964, this amendment prohibits the use of poll taxes in federal elections.

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26th Amendment

Ratified in 1971, this amendment lowered the voting age in the United States from 21 to 18.

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A Cold War policy adopted by the United States to prevent the spread of communism, particularly by the Soviet Union.

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Joseph McCarthy

A U.S. Senator known for his pursuit of alleged communists in the United States during the early Cold War period, leading to the term "McCarthyism."

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National Defense Education Act (NDEA):

A federal law enacted in 1958 that aimed to improve science, mathematics, and foreign language education in the United States, in response to the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik.

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Rosa Parks:

An African American civil rights activist known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955, which became a significant event in the Civil Rights Movement.

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Civil Rights Movement

A social and political movement in the United States, primarily during the 1950s and 1960s, that aimed to end racial segregation and secure equal rights for African Americans.

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Bay of Pigs invasion

A failed U.S.-backed military operation in 1961, in which Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist government in Cuba.

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John F. Kennedy:

The 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. He was known for his leadership during the Cold War and his support for civil rights.

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Great Society

A set of social welfare programs and policies introduced by President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s, with the goal of eliminating poverty and racial injustice in the United States.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

Landmark legislation that outlawed racial segregation and discrimination in public places, employment, and education, and provided protections for voting rights.

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War on Poverty

A set of policies and programs initiated by President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s to address poverty and inequality in the United States.

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Clean Air Act of 1970

A federal law that aimed to control air pollution in the United States by setting standards for emissions from industrial and mobile sources.

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Korean War

A conflict between North Korea (supported by China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (supported by the United Nations, primarily led by the United States) that took place from 1950 to 1953.

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Tonkin Gulf Resolution

A joint resolution passed by the U.S. Congress in 1964, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson broad powers to escalate military involvement in Vietnam.

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Tet Offensive

A series of coordinated attacks by the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces against South Vietnam and U.S. forces in 1968, during the Vietnam War.

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Watergate Affair

A major political scandal in the 1970s, which led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon, involving illegal activities, cover-ups, and abuse of power by the Nixon administration.

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Tinker v Des Moines

A landmark Supreme Court case in 1969 that upheld the rights of students to express political opinions through symbolic speech in public schools.

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American Indian Movement (AIM)

A Native American activist organization founded in 1968 to address issues of civil rights, land rights, and cultural preservation.

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Gerald Ford

The 38th President of the United States, who served from 1974 to 1977 following Richard Nixon's resignation. Ford focused on healing the nation after the Watergate scandal.

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Carter Doctrine

A foreign policy statement made by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, which declared that the United States would use military force if necessary to protect its interests in the Persian Gulf region.

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Reagan Doctrine

A foreign policy approach advocated by President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, which aimed to contain and roll back communist influence globally, particularly in the Soviet Union.

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Bill Clinton

The 42nd President of the United States, who served from 1993 to 2001. Clinton's presidency was marked by economic prosperity

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Bakke v. University of California

A landmark Supreme Court case in 1978 that dealt with affirmative action in college admissions. The Court ruled that race-based quotas were unconstitutional, but upheld the use of race as a factor in admissions decisions.

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Cold War

A period of political tension and ideological rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, lasting from the end of World War II in 1945 until the early 1990s.

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Jackie Robinson

An African American baseball player who broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball in 1947, becoming the first African American to play in the modern era.

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Rachel Carson

An American marine biologist and conservationist whose 1962 book, "Silent Spring," raised public awareness about the environmental impact of pesticides and contributed to the modern environmental movement.

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Apollo Space Program

A series of manned space missions conducted by NASA from 1961 to 1972, with the goal of landing humans on the Moon. The program achieved its objective with the Apollo 11 mission in 1969.

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Camp David Accords

A peace agreement signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in 1978, following negotiations mediated by U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the Camp David presidential retreat.

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 1990

A landmark civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in various areas, including employment, public accommodations, and transportation.

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Clinton Impeachment

Refers to the impeachment proceedings against President Bill Clinton in 1998-1999. He was impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice but was acquitted by the Senate.

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September 11, 2001

Commonly known as 9/11, it refers to the terrorist attacks carried out by the extremist group al-Qaeda on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. These attacks had a profound impact on U.S. national security, foreign policy, and public consciousness.

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A program initiated by the United States during World War II, which provided military aid and supplies to Allied nations, including the United Kingdom, China, and the Soviet Union.

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Island hopping

A military strategy employed by the United States in the Pacific theater during World War II, involving capturing selected Japanese-held islands while bypassing others, to establish airfields and bases for further advances.

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Manhattan Project

The top-secret research project during World War II that developed the first atomic bombs. It resulted in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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V-E Day

Stands for Victory in Europe Day, which marked the end of World War II in Europe on May 8, 1945, after Germany's unconditional surrender.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

The 32nd President of the United States, serving from 1933 until his death in 1945. He led the United States through the Great Depression and most of World War II.

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Dwight Eisenhower

The 34th President of the United States, serving from 1953 to 1961. Eisenhower was a prominent military general during World War II and implemented significant domestic policies during his presidency.

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Battle of the Bulge

A major German offensive campaign in the Ardennes region of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg during World War II. It was the largest and bloodiest battle fought by the United States during the war.

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Internment camps

Refers to the forced relocation and imprisonment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II, based on fears of espionage and sabotage.

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Rosie the Riveter

A cultural icon representing the American women who worked in factories and other industries during World War II, supporting the war effort.

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Pearl Harbor

The Japanese surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941. It led to the United States' entry into World War II.

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The Japanese city that was devastated by the second atomic bomb dropped by the United States on August 9, 1945, leading to Japan's surrender.

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Enola Gay

The name of the American B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima during World War II.

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Brown v. Board of Education

A landmark Supreme Court case in 1954 that declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional, overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson.

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Miranda v. Arizona

A Supreme Court case in 1966 that established the requirement for police to inform suspects of their constitutional rights before questioning them, known as the Miranda warning.

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Presidential Election of 1948

Also known as the "Dewey Defeats Truman" election, it refers to the presidential election in which Harry S. Truman, the incumbent president, won a surprising victory over Republican candidate Thomas E. Dewey.

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Truman Doctrine

A foreign policy doctrine announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, stating that the United States would provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism.

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National Security Act, 1947

A major restructuring of the United States' military and intelligence agencies, which led to the creation of the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the National Security Council (NSC).

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Founding of NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and several European nations to counter the threat of the Soviet Union.

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23rd Amendment

Ratified in 1961, this amendment granted residents of Washington, D.C., the right to vote in presidential elections by allocating them electoral votes.

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25th Amendment

Ratified in 1967, this amendment outlines the presidential succession and procedures for the vice president to assume the presidency in the event of the president's death, resignation, or inability to discharge their duties.

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27th Amendment

Ratified in 1992, this amendment addresses congressional pay, stating that any change in congressional salaries can only take effect after the next election.

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A term used to describe a diplomatic and military strategy where parties involved in a conflict push dangerous situations to the brink of war in order to force the other side to make concessions.

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A top-secret policy document issued by the United States National Security Council in 1950 during the Cold War. It advocated for a significant increase in military spending and a more aggressive stance against the Soviet Union.

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Eisenhower Doctrine

a Middle Eastern country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression.

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Martin Luther King, Jr

A prominent civil rights leader and activist who advocated for racial equality, nonviolent protest, and social justice. He played a key role in the Civil Rights Movement until his assassination in 1968.

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Presidential Election of 1960

A closely contested election between John F. Kennedy (Democratic Party) and Richard Nixon (Republican Party). Kennedy won the election and became the 35th President of the United States.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

A tense standoff in 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union over the placement of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. It marked a critical point during the Cold War and is considered the closest the world came to nuclear war.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

The 36th President of the United States, serving from 1963 to 1969. Johnson implemented a wide range of domestic programs, including the Great Society initiatives and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Malcolm X

An influential African American Muslim minister and civil rights activist who advocated for black nationalism and self-defense. He was a prominent figure in the Nation of Islam until his assassination in 1965.

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Voting Rights Act, 1965

Legislation passed to overcome legal barriers that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote, particularly in the South. It aimed to enforce the 15th Amendment's guarantee of voting rights for all citizens.

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Wilderness Act, 1964

A law that established the National Wilderness Preservation System, designating protected areas of wilderness across the United States and ensuring their preservation.

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Clean Water Act, 1972

A federal law enacted to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters. It regulates the discharge of pollutants into water sources and protects water quality.

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Vietnam War

A prolonged conflict fought between the communist forces of North Vietnam, supported by the Soviet Union and China, and the non-communist forces of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. The war lasted from 1955 to 1975.

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War Powers Act

Passed in 1973, this act requires the President of the United States to consult with Congress and obtain authorization for the deployment of armed forces in hostilities or situations that could lead to hostilities.

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Pentagon Papers

A classified study of U.S. involvement in Vietnam commissioned by the Department of Defense. The papers were leaked to the press in 1971, revealing government deception and contributing to public opposition to the war.

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SALT Treaties

Referring to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, a series of negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The treaties aimed to limit the number of strategic nuclear weapons possessed by both countries.

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Roe v. Wade

A landmark Supreme Court case in 1973 that legalized abortion in the United States. The Court held that a woman has a constitutional right to privacy, which includes the decision to have an abortion.

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Richard Nixon

The 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. Nixon's presidency was marked by significant domestic policies, such as the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency, as well as the Watergate scandal, which led to his resignation.

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Jimmy Carter

The 39th President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981. Carter prioritized human rights and pursued diplomatic efforts, such as the Camp David Accords. He also faced challenges, including the Iranian hostage crisis and economic difficulties.

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Ronald Reagan

The 40th President of the United States, serving from 1981 to 1989. Reagan implemented conservative economic policies known as "Reaganomics" and played a significant role in ending the Cold War.

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George H. W. Bush

The 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. Bush led the country during a period of significant international events, including the Gulf War to expel Iraq from Kuwait.

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Sandra Day O'Connor

The first female justice appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. O'Connor served from 1981 to 2006 and played a crucial role in several important cases during her tenure.

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The North American Free Trade Agreement, a trilateral trade agreement signed in 1994 between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA aimed to reduce trade barriers and promote economic cooperation between the three countries.

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Jonas Salk

An American medical researcher who developed the first effective polio vaccine in the 1950s, helping to combat the polio epidemic and save countless lives.

Cesar Chavez: An American labor leader and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers). Chavez fought for the rights of agricultural workers, advocating for better wages and working conditions.

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Thurgood Marshall

The first African American justice appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall served from 1967 to 1991 and played a key role in advancing civil rights, including his work as an attorney for the NAACP in landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education.

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Iran Hostage Crisis

A diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran from 1979 to 1981. Iranian revolutionaries seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, holding American hostages for 444 days.

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Iran-Contra Affair

A political scandal during the Reagan administration in the 1980s. It involved the secret sale of weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages and the diversion of funds from those sales to support anti-Sandinista rebels in Nicaragua.

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Gulf War

A military conflict in 1990-1991 between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq. The war was prompted by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and resulted in the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi control.

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George Walker Bush

American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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