AQA A-Level History Tudors: Henry VIII

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When did Henry VIII become King?

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1

When did Henry VIII become King?

1509

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2

Who did Henry VIII arrest within days of becoming King?

Empson and Dudley (of the Council learned in law)

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3

What did Henry VIII initially do to show that he had a different attitude towards nobles?

Disbanded the Council Learned in Law and cancelled 175 bonds

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4

What did Henry VIII continue to use to maintain peace?

JPs

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5

Who was Lord Chancellor at the beginning of Henry VIIIs reign?

Sir Thomas More

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6

What were Henry VIIIs aims in foreign policy at the beginning of his reign?

To establish his presence and demonstrate strength

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7

When did Henry VIII first lead an army to France?

1512

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8

When did Wolsey lead a second expedition to France?

1513

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9

What were the results of the 1513 expedition to France?

Battle of Spurs victory and gain of Therouanne and Tournai

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10

What Treaty with France was made in 1514?

Treaty of Saint Germaine-en-Laye

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11

In 1512, what country invaded England?

Scotland

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12

In what battle were the Scots defeated in 1513?

Battle of Flodden

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13

When was Wolsey made Cardinal by Pope Leo X and Lord Chancellor?

1515

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14

When was Wolsey appointed Papal Legate?

1518

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15

What was Wolsey most interested in reforming in the Church?

Education (closed down some monasteries to pay for this)

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16

At the time of Wolsey, who began to publish parts of the bible in English?

William Tyndale

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17

What was Wolsey accused of in regard to the Church?

Twin vices of absenteeism and plurality

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18

What did Wolsey publicly burn?

Lutheran texts

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19

In 1526, what did Wolsey use to reduce the influence of others at court?

Eltham Ordinances

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20

What was Wolsey's main concern in legal issues?

to tackle slow and unfair delivery of justice 9and to promote civil law)

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21

How did Wolsey use the Star Chamber?

to attack nobles and local officials

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22

By how much did Wolsey increase the number of cases heard every year?

120

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23

What did Wolsey use to hear cases from poor people?

Court of Requests

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24

When did Wolsey conduct a financial survey to assess who could pay tax?

1522, gained £200000 in forced loans

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25

What flexible tax did Wolsey introduce?

Subsidy

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26

Amicable Grant

1525

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27

When did Wolsey conduct a national enquiry on enclosure?

1517

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28

How many Parliaments were called under Wolsey?

2

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29

What forced Wolsey to fall back on the issue of enclosure?

Opposition from landowners in 1523

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30

Why was there a personal threat to Henry VIII in regard to foreign policy?

All major powers were now ruled by young monarchs such as himself

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31

When was the Treaty of London?

October 1518

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32

What the Treaty of London call for

Universal peace (over two dozen countries signed)

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33

How did Wolsey have every country sign the Treaty of London?

Seperately

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34

When was the Field of the Cloth of Gold?

June 1520

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35

What was the Field of the Cloth of Gold?

A meeting with Francis

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36

In 1522, England declared war on what country?

France (there was a better alliance with Spain due to Catherine of Aragon)

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37

When was the League of Cognac created?

1526

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38

What was the League of Cognac?

An anti-Hasburg alliance

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39

In 1528, England was at war with whom?

The Hasburgs

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40

When was the Treaty of Cambrai?

1529 (between France, Spain and England)

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41

What scripture did Wolsey uncover regarding the validity of Catherine and Henry's marriage?

If a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an impurity... they shall be childless

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42

In 1529, of what did Henry accuse Wolsey?

Praemunire (working in the interest of the Pope rather than the King)

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43

Who replaced Wolsey as Chancellor?

Sir Thomas More

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44

What did William Tyndale's book; The obedience of the Christian Man suggest?

Kings had authority from God

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45

What historians suggested that Henry VIII was unsure of how to go about the divorce and feared a split with the pope?

Elton and Haigh

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46

What was the 'Supplication Against the Ordinaries' introduced by Cromwell?

called on the King to deal with the corruption of the clergy (1532)

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47

When was the act, preventing payment of annates to Rome, passed?

1532

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48

When did Cromwell become Lord Privy Seal?

1536

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49

When did Cromwell become Lord Great Chamberlain?

1540

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50

When was the Act in restraint of appeals passed?

1533

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51

When was the Act of Supremacy?

1534

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52

How did government react to the reformation?

Actively encouraged it

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53

What book, written at the time of the reformation, stressed the need for a hierarchy?

True Obedience - Stephen Gardiner

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54

What did Cranmer and Cromwell produce together?

The Ten articles of faith

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55

When was the Bishop's Book published?

1537

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56

When was there the first proclamation that there should be a copy of the English bible in every church?

1538

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57

When was the Act of Six Articles?

1539 (encouraged by the Duke of Norfolk i.e Howard family)

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58

By the 16th century, the number of the regular clergy had decreased to about what?

10,000

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59

When did Cromwell commission a survey of the value of the property of smaller monasteries?

Valor Ecclesiaticus 1535

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60

What would dissolution of the monasteries give the crown?

More land and money

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61

What were monasteries a permanent reminder of?

The Catholic Church (potential centres of rebellion)

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62

When was the Act of First Fruits and Tenths?

1534 (tax the Church what they used to pay to the Pope)

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63

When was the Act for the dissolution of smaller monasteries?

1536 (lands valued at under £200 a year)

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64

When was the Act for the dissolution of larger monasteries?

1539

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65

What was established in 1540 to handle the income from the dissolved monasteries?

The Court of Augmentations

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66

What did the total value of the dissolution amount to?

ten percent of the entire wealth of the Kingdom

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67

What did money from the dissolution mostly finance?

Foreign Policy

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68

What was lost with the dissolution of the monasteries?

Services and aids to locals

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69

What class seemed to benefit from the dissolution?

The gentry

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70

What was also affected by the dissolution of the monasteries?

Education

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71

What did Thomas More refuse to do which led to him being imprisoned?

swear an oath accepting the Succession Act

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72

Who were the Aragonese faction?

Sympathisers of Catherine of Aragon, led by Henry Courtenay

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73

Which Bishop was imprisoned and executed for not agreeing to Henry's divorce?

John Fisher

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74

Which Nun had visions depicting disaster if Henry were to divorce Catherine?

Elizabeth Barton

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75

Which group of Monks refused to accept the divorce which led to eighteen of them being executed?

The Carthusian Order

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76

When was the Pilgrimage of Grace?

1536-37

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77

Approximately, how many 'pilgrims' in arms were there?

40,000

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78

Who was the leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace?

Robert Aske

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79

Where was the Pilgrimage of Grace mostly located?

The North

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80

What were the aims of the Pilgrimage of Grace?

To put pressure on the King to reverse Cromwell's policies

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81

Who was the Privy council in Henry VIII's reign different from his father's?

Smaller, no more than 20 people 9conatined lawyers and professionals instead of nobles)

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82

What four new finance departments were created under Cromwell?

Augmentations, General Surveyors, First Fruits and Tenths, Wards

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83

Why did Cromwell use Parliament extensively?

To enact legislation needed for the Break with Rome

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84

When did Parliament meet and then consequently last for seven years?

1529

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85

What changed in Parliament following the dissolution of the monasteries?

The clergy became a minority in the House of Lords

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86

When did the Pope excommunicate Henry?

1538

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87

What Treaty in 1938, was a threat to Henry VIII?

Truce of Nice (between Charles V and Francis I)

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88

When did Henry VIII attack the Scots after James refused to turn up repeatedly to peace negotiations?

1542 (Solway Moss, James died)

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89

When did Henry capture Boulogne?

1544

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90

After capturing Boulogne what was agreed between France and England?

That France would renew paying their pension money

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91

When did Ireland lead a rebellion against the English Crown as a result of Henry displacing the Pope?

1536

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92

When did Henry set about establishing royal authority in Ireland?

1540

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93

What gave Henry VIII suspicions about Cromwell's personal interests?

Protestant alliance, personal religion, Cleves marriage

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94

Who was Cromwell's bitterest rival on the Privy Council?

Duke of Norfolk (Uncle of Catherine Howard)

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95

When was Cromwell executed?

July 1540 (same day as the marriage to Catherine)

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96

What was Elton's view on Cromwell?

He was a brilliant public servant and a reformer of government

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97

When was Henry VIII's succession Act?

1544

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98

What faction was dominating at the end of Henry VIII's reign?

Reform

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99

When was Sir Anthony Denny made Chief Gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber?

1546

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100

What were the doctrines of the church most like at the end of Henry VIII's reign?

Catholic

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