[PT11] Organ Systems

studied byStudied by 48 People
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

skin

1/164

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
164
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
164 Terms
New cards

skin

the first line of defense for the immune system. It waterproofs the body and is the major receptor for the sense of touch

New cards
New cards

cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o

related combining forms of skin

New cards
New cards

sebaceous glands

secretes sebum (oil) to lubricate the skin and discourage the growth of bacteria on the skin

New cards
New cards

seb/o

related combining forms of SEBACEOUS GLANDS

New cards
New cards

sweat glands

secret sweat to regulate body temperature and water content, and these glands excrete some metabolic waste

New cards
New cards

hid/ro

related combining forms of SWEAT GLANDS

New cards
New cards

hair

aids in controlling the loss of body heat

New cards
New cards

pil/i. pil/o

related combining forms of hair

New cards
New cards

nails

protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe

New cards
New cards

onych/o, ungu/o

related combining forms of nails

New cards
New cards

skin

largest organ in the body in surface area and weight

New cards
New cards

2 square meters

coverage of the skin

New cards
New cards

4.5-5kg (16% of total body weight)

weight of the skin

New cards
New cards

0.5mm to 4mm

thickness of the skin

New cards
New cards

hirsut/o

word parts of hairy/rough

New cards
New cards

kerat/o

word parts of horny, hard

New cards
New cards

lip/o

word parts of fat, lipid

New cards
New cards

melan/o

word parts of black, dark

New cards
New cards

myc/o

word parts of fungus

New cards
New cards

onych/o

word parts of fingernail or toenail

New cards
New cards

py/o

pus

New cards
New cards

rhytid/o

wrinkle

New cards
New cards

seb/o

sebum

New cards
New cards

urtic/o

rash or hives

New cards
New cards

xer/o

dry

New cards
New cards

epidermis

the outermost layer of the skin made up of several specialized epithelial tissues

dependent on lower layers for nourishment

New cards
New cards

keratin

a fibrous, water-repellent protein

New cards
New cards

soft keratin

a primary component of the epidermis

New cards
New cards

hard keratin

found in the hair and nails

New cards
New cards

melanocytes

special cells that are also found in the basal cell layer, they produce and contain a dark brown pigment known as melanin

New cards
New cards

melanin

is the pigment that determines the color of the skin, which depends upon the type and amount of this pigment that is present

New cards
New cards

melanin

produces spots of color such as freckles and age spots; has the important function of protecting the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays

New cards
New cards

dermis

the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis

New cards
New cards

corium

what is the dermis also known as?

New cards
New cards

connective tissue blood lymph vessels nerve fibers hair follicles sebaceous glands sweat glands sensory nerve endings

what does the dermis contain?

New cards
New cards

decubitus ulcer (bedsore)

injuries to skin and underlying tissue resulting from prolonged pressure on the skin

areas with little fat and muscle over bony prominences are common sites

New cards
New cards

subcutaneous layer

layer located below the dermis that contains loose connective tissues, adipose tissues, and major blood vessels that supply the skin

New cards
New cards

melanin

pigments responsible for pale yellow to tan and black colors

New cards
New cards

carotene

pigment with melanin that makes skin appear translucent

New cards
New cards

hemoglobin

pigment that's responsible for pink to red color

New cards
New cards
  • due to the amount of melanin produced by melanocytes; number of melanocytes remains the same in all people

  • distribution and size of pigment granules

why are there differences in skin color?

New cards
New cards

freckles

accumulation of melanin in patches

New cards
New cards

liver (age) spots

flat skin patches from light brown to black

New cards
New cards

albinism

inherited inability of a person to produce melanin in hair, eyes, and skin

New cards
New cards
  • environment (sunlight)

  • amount of oxygen -physiological factors

  • biochemical factors (newborn-jaundice)

factors that influence skin color

New cards
New cards
  • poor blood oxygenation

  • oxygen-depleted hemoglobin (deep, purplish blue)

what can bluish cyanotic skin and/or nail beds indicate?

New cards
New cards
  • build up of bilirubin in the blood

  • liver disease

what can yellow to the skin and whites of the eyes indicate?

New cards
New cards
  • capillary engorgement with blood in the dermis due to skin injury, heat exposure, infection, inflammation, or allergic reaction

what can skin redness indicate?

New cards
New cards
  • hair

  • nails

  • sweat glands

accessory structures of the skin

New cards
New cards
  • palms

  • palmar surfaces of the digits

  • soles

  • lips

  • nipples

  • parts of the external genitalia

hair is not present in these surfaces

New cards
New cards

arrector pili muscle

smooth muscle that connects each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis

New cards
New cards

arrector pili muscle

contracts pulling the slanted hair to upright and dimpling the skin surface with "goosebumps"

New cards
New cards

arrector pili muscle

exerts pressure to sebaceous glands resulting to release of sebum

New cards
New cards
  • thermoregulation

  • protection

  • cutaneous sensation

  • excretion and absorption

  • vitamin D synthesis

functions of the skin

New cards
New cards
  • liberating sweat at skin surface

  • adjusting blood flow in the dermis

two methods of thermoregulation in the skin

New cards
New cards

keratinocytes

resist invasion from microbes

New cards
New cards

oily sebum

protects skin and hairs from drying and kills surface bacteria

New cards
New cards

melanin

protects skin from UVR damaging effects

New cards
New cards
  • touch

  • pressure

  • vibration

  • tickling

  • thermal

tactile sensations

New cards
New cards

400mL

how much water evaporates from humans daily?

New cards
New cards

calcitriol (most active form of vitamin D)

produced when UVR activates the vitamin D precursor molecule

New cards
New cards

calcitriol

helps absorption of calcium in foods from the GIT into the blood

New cards
New cards

bones

act as the framework for the body, protect the internal organs, and store the mineral calcium

New cards
New cards

oss/o, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o

related combining forms of bones

New cards
New cards

red bone marrow

located within the spongy bone, is a hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

New cards
New cards

yellow bone barrow

functions as a fat storage area composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity of long bones

New cards
New cards

myel/o (also means spinal cord)

related combining forms of bone marrow

New cards
New cards

cartilage

creates a smooth surface for motion within the joints and protects the ends of the bones

New cards
New cards

chondr/o

related combining forms of cartilage

New cards
New cards

joints

work with muscles to make a variety of motions possible

New cards
New cards

arthr/o

related combining forms of joints

New cards
New cards

ligaments

connect one bone to another

New cards
New cards

ligament/o

related combining forms of ligament

New cards
New cards

synovial membrane

forms the lining of synovial joints and secretes synovial fluid

New cards
New cards

synovi/o, synov/o

related combining forms of synovial membrane/fluid

New cards
New cards

synovial fluid

lubricant that makes smooth joint movements possible

New cards
New cards

bursa

cushions areas subject to friction during movement

New cards
New cards

burs/o

related combining forms of bursa

New cards
New cards

bones

where is calcium stored?

New cards
New cards

spongy bone

where is red bone marrow located?

New cards
New cards

joints work in conjunction with muscles, ligaments, and tendons, making possible the wide variety of body movements

what do joints work in conjunction with?

New cards
New cards

ankyl/o

word part meaning crooked, bent, stiff

New cards
New cards

-desis

word part meaning bind, tie together

New cards
New cards

kyph/o

word part meaning bent, hump

New cards