Studied by 16 people

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1

newtons 1st law

a body continues in a state of rest or at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force

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2

newtons 2nd law

the rate of momentum experienced by the object is proportional to the size of the force and takes lace in the direction which the force acts

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3

newtons 3rd law

every action has an equal and opposite reaction

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4

types of motion

linear motion, angular motion, general motion

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5

linear motion

movement of a body in a straight or curved line where all parts are moving the same distance in the same direction over the same time

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6

example of linear motion

100m sprint/swim

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7

what newtons law relates to linear motion

newtons 1st law

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8

angular motion

movement of a body or body part in a circular path about an axis of reaction

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9

what newtons law relates to angular motion

newtons 1st law

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10

example of angular motion

shoulder during cricket bowl

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11

what causes linear motion

direct force applied to the body through the COM

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12

what causes angular motion

eccentric force applied to a body outside of the COM

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13

general motion

it is a combination of linear and angular motion

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14

example of general motion

swimming, running, cycling

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15

explantion of general motion

the trunk moves in linear motion and as a result of other body parts moving in angular motion and shoulder and hip joint

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16

velocity

the rate of change in displacement

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17

units of velocity

m/s

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18

equation for velocity

velocity=displacement/time

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19

momentum

the quanity of motion possessed by a moving body

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20

units of momentum

kgm/s

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21

equation of momentum

momentum= mass X velocity

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22

acceleration

the rate of change of velocity

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23

units of acceleration

m/s/s

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24

equation of acceleration

(finial velocity-initial velocity)/time taken

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25

5 ways to increase acceleartion

increase force/velocity/speed

increase friction

reduce mass/weight

improve technique

decrease air resistance

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26

centre of mass

the point where all the mass of the body tends to be concentrated and balanced in all directions

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27

what does COM depend on?

body position

athlete body shape

gender

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28

stability

a stable body position will enable an athlete to resist motion

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29

line of gravity

an imaginary line which extends from the centre of mass directly to the ground

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30

how do you increase stability?

increase mass of body

increase size of base support

lower COM

increase number of contact points

bring line of gravity inside the base support

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31

force

a push or pull that alters the state of motion of a body

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32

force units

newtons

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33

equation for force

force= mass x acceleration

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34

net force

the overall force acting on a body when all individual forces have been considered

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35

vertical forces

weight and reaction force

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36

horizontal force

friction and air resistance

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37

weight

gravitational force that the Earth exacts on a body

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38

reaction force

whenever there is a point of contact between two bodies there will alway be this force

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39

air resistance

the force that opposes motion of a body travelling through air

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40

friction

the force that opposes the motion of two surfaces in contact

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41

types of friction

sliding friction, direction friction, parallel friction

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42

sliding friction

occurs when two surfaces have a tendency to slide over one another

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43

direction of friction

acts in the opposite direction to motion

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44

parallel friction

acts parallel to the two surfaces in contact with eachother

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45

factors affecting friction

roughness of footwear/object

roughness of ground

size of down force

temperature of surface

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46

factors affecting air resistance

shape of object

velocity

frontal cross sectional area

smoothness of surface

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47

how to increase acceleration

technique

footwork

conditions

body shape

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48

how to increase deceleration

force

air resitsance

body shape

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49

what is a load arm

the perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the load

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50

what is the effort arm

the perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the effort

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51

what is a 1st class lever

fulcrum in the middle

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52

what is a 2nd class lever

load in the middle

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53

what is a 3rd class lever

effort in the middle

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54

example of 1st class lever

header (fulcrum= joint between atlas and skull, load= weight of head, effort= trapezius )

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55

example of 2nd class lever

pirouette in ballet (fulcrum= joint between phalanges and metatarsals, load= weight of body, effort= plantarflexion)

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56

example of a 3rd class lever

bicep curl (fulcrum= elbow, load= weight, effort= biceps brachii)

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57

which lever has mechanical advantage

2nd class

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58

what is mechanical advantage

ability to move large load with small effort, larger effort arm than load arm

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59

what lever has mechanical disadvantage

3rd class lever

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60

what is mechanical disadvanatge

lever struggles with heavy load, load arm is longer than the effort arm

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61

what is limb kinematics

the study of motion, limbs and movement through video, 3D analysis.

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62

what is a strength of limb kinematics

improve technique, improve posture, helps with injury rehabilitation

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63

what is a weakness of limb kinematics

accessibility, cost, requires specialist data to interpret

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64

what are force plates

rectangular metal plates in the ground that measure force

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65

what is a strength of force plates

to design prothesistics, to improve technique, rehabilitation

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66

what is a weakness of force plates

expensive, requires specialist training, must be calibrated

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67

what are wind tunnels

they are used to stimulate air resistance

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68

what are postives of wind tunnels

improve technique (aerodynamic), to test equipment design

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69

what are weaknesses of wind tunnels

accessibility, cost, training to interpret data

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70

what are the key factors of linear motion

distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration

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71

what is distance

total length from start to finish (m)

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72

what is displacement

the shortest straight line route from start to finish (m)

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73

what is speed

the rate of change in distance (m/s)

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74

what is velocity

the rate of change in displacement (m/s)

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75

what is acceleration

the rate of change in velocity (m/s/s)

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76

what are the graphs of linear motion

distance/time graphs, speed/time graphs, velocity/time graph

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77

what is torque

a turning force- the greater the eccentric force, the greater the angular motion

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78

what are the 3 axis of rotation

longitudinal (from head to toe)

transverse (from side to side)

frontal (from front to back)

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79

what is angular motion measured in

radians (rad/s)

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80

what is angular velocity

the rate of change in angular displacement

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81

what is the equation for angular velocity

AV (rad/s)= angular displacement (rad)/time (s)

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82

what is moment of inertia

the resistance if a body to change its state of angular motion

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83

what is the equation for moment of inertia

MI (kgm2)= mass(kg) x distribution of mass from axis of rotation (m2)

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84

what 2 factors affect MI

mass

distribution of mass from the axis of rotation

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85

mass (moment of inertia)

the greater the mass, the greater the moment of inertia, decreases angular velocity

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86

distribution of mass (moment of inertia)

close mass distribution from axis, decrease moment of inertia, increase angular velocity

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87

what is angular momentum

the quantity of angular motion possessed by a body

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88

what is the equation foo angular momentum

AM= MI x AV

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89

conservation of angular momentum

AM is constant. As MI increases, AV decreases

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90

what can affect drag and air resistance

velocity (greater velocity= greater drag and AR)

frontal cross-sectional area (larger= greater drag and AR)

shape (more streamlined= less drag and AR)

surface characteristics (smooth surface= less drag and AR)

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91

what is projectile motion

movement of a body through air flowing a curved flight path under the force of gravity

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92

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93

what 4 things can imapct projectile motion

speed of release

angle of release

height of release

aerodynamics

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94

how does the speed of release impact projectile motion

the greater force applied to projectile, greater acceleration, so travels further

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95

how does the angle of release impact projectile motion

45- optimal angles= greatest distance

less than 45- not enough height

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96

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97

what is a parabolic flight path

a uniform curve, symmetrical about its highest point, unaffected by air resistance caused by a dominant weight force

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98

what is a non parabolic flight path

asymmetric about its highest point caused by the dominant force of air resistance on the projectile

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99

what is Bernoulli’s principle

the higher the velocity of air flows the lower the surrounding pressure

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100

what is Bernoulli principle (explanation)

aerofoil shape causes air to travel a greater distance with a greater velocity so low pressure above, air travels a shorter distance so lower velocity so high pressure below, air moves from high to low pressure down the pressure gradient so creates a lift force

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