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1

Alternating current

current flow consisting of charges that continually change direction

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2

ammeter

a device connected in series with a component to measure the current that flows through it

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3

amp ( A )

unit of current

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4

Circuit breaker

A safety device that cuts off the power supply if a surge of current passes through it

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5

coulomb

unit of charge

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6

currents at a junction

the sum of current entering a junction must always equal the sum of currents leaving it

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7

diode

a component that only allows current to flow in the forward direction

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8

direct current

current flow consisting of charges flowing in a single direction only

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9

earth wire

the green and yellow striped safety wire connected to metal casings that prevents an appliance from becoming live

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10

electric current

the rate of flow of charge

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11

energy transfers in circuits

electrical energy is transferred to thermal energy when current does work against a resistance

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12

filament lamp

a light emitting component consisting of an enclosed metal filament

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13

fuse

a safety device consisting of a thin metal filament that melts and cuts off a power supply if there is a surge in current

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14

Light Dependent Resistor

A light sensitive component whose resistance decreases as its temperature increases

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15

Light emitting diode

a device that gives out light when a current flows through it. Current can only flow in one direction and a minimum voltage must be applied across it before it lights up

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16

live wire

the brown coloured wire that carries the alternating current from the supply in a mains power supply

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17

mains electricity

An a.c supply that, in the UK, has a frequency of 50 Hz and a value of 230V

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18

Neutral Wire

the blue coloured wire that completes the circuit in a mains power supply

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19

Ohmic Conductor

A conductor whose current flow is directly proportional to the potential differance across it, when kept at a constant temperature

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20

Ohms

Unit of resistance

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21

Ohmâ€™s law

the current flowing through an Ohmic conductor at a constant temperature is directly proportional to the potential differance across it

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22

Parallel

Components connected in parallel had the same voltage across each component an the total current is equal to the total sum of currents flowing through each component

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23

potential differance ( voltage )

the energy that is transferred per unit of charge between 2 points in a circuit

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24

power

the rate at which an appliance transfers energy

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25

power for a circuit component =

current passing through it x voltage across it

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26

resistance

a measure of the opposition to current flow

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27

resistors in parallel

the total resistance is less than the lowest individual resistance

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28

resistors in series

the total resistance is equal to the sum of the resistances of the individual resistors

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29

series

components connected in series have the same current passing through but share the total voltage of the power supply

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30

thermistor

a temperature dependent component, whose resistance increases as temperature decreases

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31

volt

the unit of potential differance

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32

1 volt =

1 joule / coulomb

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33

volt metre

a device that is connected in parallel with a component to measure the potential differance across it

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34

watt

the unit of power

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35

energy transferred =

charge moved x voltage

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36

charge =

current x time

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37

voltage =

current x resistance

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38

resistors heat up when used because â€¦

â€¦ the electrons carrying the charge collide with the ions in a lattice in the resistor, increasing the kinetic energy, increasing the temperature

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39

energy transferred =

current x voltage x time

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40

power =

energy transferred / time taken

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41

electrical power =

current x voltage

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42

electrical power =

current ^ 2 x resistance

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