Unit 3-1: Cultural Patterns and Processes

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Centrifugal Force

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45 Terms

1

Centrifugal Force

A force that threatens the cohesion of a neighborhood, society, or country

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2

Centripetal Force

A force that brings people together and unifies a neighborhood, society, or country

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3

Colonialism

The act of forcefully controlling a foreign territory, which becomes known as a colony

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4

Contagious Diffusion

The wavelike spread of ideas in the manner of a contagious disease or forest fire, moving throughout space without regard for hierarchy

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5

Creole

A combined language that has a fuller vocabulary than a pidgin language and becomes a native language

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6

Cultural Relativism

An approach to understanding other cultures that seeks to understand individuals and cultures from a wider perspective of cultural logic

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7

Cultural Trait

A single aspect of a given culture or society

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8

Ethnic Group

A people of common ancestry and cultural tradition; characterized by a strong feeling of group identity

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9

Ethnocentric Approach

An approach to understanding other cultures that evaluates them from the perspective of the observer's culture

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10

Hierarchical Diffusion

Occurs when ideas leapfrog from one important person, community, or city to another, bypassing other persons, communities, or rural areas

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11

Imperialism

The motivating impulse to control greater amounts of territory

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12

Indigenous Culture

A local culture that is no longer the dominant ethnic group within its traditional homeland because of migration, colonization, or political marginalization

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13

Language

a mutually agreed-upon system of symbolic communication that has a spoken and usually a written expression.

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14

Lingua Franca

A language of communication and commerce spoken across a wide area where it is not a mother tongue

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15

Local Culture

Rural, ethnically homogeneous culture that is deeply connected to the local land; the opposite of popular culture

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16

Long-Lot Settlement

A linear settlement pattern in which each farmstead is situated at one end of a long, narrow rectangular lot; each lot has access to a major linear resource, usually a river or major road

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17

Material Culture

The physical, visible objects made and used by members of a cultural group; includes buildings, furniture, clothing, food, artwork, and musical instruments

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18

Modernist Architecture

A functional, rational, and orderly style for building designs

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19

Multiculturalism

A set of policies that promote the active participation and inclusion of minority groups in national histories, national politics, and cultural institutions with the goal of embracing difference with society

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20

Nonmaterial Culture

Intangible elements of culture including a wide range of beliefs, values, myths, and symbolic meanings passed from generation to generation within given society

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21

Pidgin

A trade language, characterized by a very small vocabulary derived from the languages of at least two or more groups in contact

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22

Placelessness

a feeling resulting from the standardization of the built environment, increasingly on a global scale, that diminishes regional variation and eliminates the unique meanings associated with specific locations

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23

Placemaking

Efforts to use and design public places to better serve the needs of residents and to foster a stronger community

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24

Popular Culture

Heterogeneous culture that is more influenced by key urban areas and quick to adopt new technologies; opposite of a local culture

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25

Postmodern Architecture

A design style that is a reaction against modernist architecture; it has a flair for the dramatic, creating a spectacle while serving a variety of functions

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26

Religion

A structured set of beliefs and practices through which people seek mental and physical harmony with the powers of the universe

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27

Sacred Space

Natural or human-made sites that possess religious meaning and are recognized as worthy of devotion, loyalty, fear, or esteem

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28

Secular

Less influenced or controlled by religion

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29

Sense of Place

How a person feels about a particular place and why it's important to them

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30

Sequent Occupance

Refers to the fact that many places have been controlled or affected by a variety of groups over a period of time; those groups have reshaped the functions or meanings of these places and left behind layers of meaning

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31

Stimulus Diffusion

Occurs when a specific trait is rejected, but the underlying idea is accepted

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32

Cultural Landscape

A natural land that has been modified by humans, reflecting their cultural beliefs and values

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33

Cultural Relativism

The evaluation of a culture by its own standards

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34

Culture

The beliefs, values, practices, behaviors, and technologies shared by a society and passed down from generation to generation

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35

Ethnocentrism

The tendency of ethnic groups to evaluate other groups according to preconceived ideas originating from their own culture

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36

Gendered Spaces

a space designed and deliberately incorporated into the landscape to accommodate gender roles

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37

Sequent Occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

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38

Toponym

place name

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39

Commodification

Transformation of goods and services into products that can be bought, sold, or traded

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40

Cultural Appropriation

When one culture adopts customs and knowledge from another culture and uses them for its own benefit.

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41

Distance Decay

Decreasing likelihood of diffusion with greater distance from the hearth

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42

Folk Culture

small homogeneous population; mostly rural and cohesive in cultural traits that are passed down from generation to generation

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43

Hearth

Area or place where an idea, innovation, or technology originates.

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44

Popular Culture

cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced, western societies

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45

Time-Space Compression

Increasing connectedness between world cities from improved communication and transportation networks.

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