# Chapter 3: Electric Forces and Fields

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Electric Charge

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## Description and Tags

It deals with electric charges and fields associated with it.

### 32 Terms

1

Electric Charge

1. In an isolated system, the charge is always conserved.

2. Protons and electrons have a quality called electric charge.

3. The charge is invariant in nature.

4. The charge is quantized.

• (Q = n e)

• e = 1.6 * 10^-19 C

• n = no. of electrons

• Q = charge

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2

Ionisation

It involves addition or removal of electrons.

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3

Coulomb’s Law

The electric force between two particles with charges q1 and q2 separated by distance r has a magnitude by the equation:

F = Kq1q2/r^2

• F = force

• K = coulomb’s constant

• q1 and q2 = charges

• r = distance between the charges

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4

Consider three point charges: q1, q2, and q3. The total electric force acting on, say, is simply the sum of F1-on-2, the electric force on q2 due to q1, and F3-on-2, the electric force on q2 due to q3:

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5

Electric Field

The space is surrounded by a charge in which another charged particle experiences the force.

E = F on q/ q

It describes the electric field vector from the force vector on a positive charge.

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6

Electric field due to a point charge

The electric field surrounding the point charge is:

E = 1/4πε0 * Q/r^2

• E = electric field

• Q = charge

• r = distance between charges

• ε0 = permittivity of free space

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7

Three types of electric field

• It is generated by a collection of point charges.

• An infinite sheet of charge.

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8

electric field lines

• The electric fields follow the same addition properties as the electric force.

• The electric field lines never cross.

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9

The uniform electric field

• A lot of problems deal with the uniform electric field.

• The field may be taken as uniform at least in the middle.

• The uniform field just signifies the constant force.

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10

Conductors

Materials which allow the flow of excess charge without resisting it.

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11

Insulators

Materials that resist the flow of electrons.

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12

Charging by friction

It involves rubbing the insulator against another material, thereby stripping electrons from one to another material.

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13

Charging through conduction

When we connect two conductors charge flows from one to another until the potential of both the conductors becomes the same.

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14

Charging through induction

The process of charging by induction may be used to redistribute charges among a pair of neutrally charged spheres.

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15

If the sphere is an insulator made up of glass

• There aren’t any free electrons.

• The atoms make up the sphere will become polarised.

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16

charge of proton

positive

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17

charge of electron

negative

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18

law of charges

the directions of the electric forces on the charges of mutual interaction; like charges repel, opposite charges attract.

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19

net charge

an object with an excess of positive or negative charges

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20

electrostatic charging

accomplished by Friction, Contact, Induction, or Polarization

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21

Charging by Polarization

Charging by Polarization

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22

How do objects become charged?

By gaining/losing electrons

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23

Electric charge is always _______.

Conserved

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24

What is the numerical value of one charge?

1 e = 1.6 x 10^-19 Coulombs

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25

The SI unit of a charge is in ______.

coulombs

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26

What happens when an insulator is charged?

Only the small spot which was directly contacted with a charge remains charged.

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27

What is the name of materials that contain properties somewhere between conductors and insulators?

semiconductors

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28

A dipole consists of:

two equal and opposite charged

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29

In what direction to field lines go?

From positive to negative charges ALWAYS

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30

What indicated field strength?

The density of field lines

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31

What do few field lines between charges indicate?

a weak field

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32

Which one of the following rules, laws, or principles describes how the net electric charge of an isolated system undergoing any process remains constant?

law of conservation of electric charge

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