AP psych Unit 1

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Introspection

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110 Terms

1

Introspection

The process of inspecting one's own thought processes

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Structuralism

An approach that focused on uncovering the basic structures of the mind using introspection. Created by Wilhelm Wundt

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Functionalism

An approach that focused on how mental processes/behaviors are adaptations to our environment. Created by William James

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Wilhelm Wundt

Known as the "father of psychology". Created structuralism and set up the first psychology laboratory

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Margaret Floy Washburn

First woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. Became second female president of the APA

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William James

Wrote the first psychology textbook: The Principles of Psychology. Created functionalism

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Mary Whiton Calkins

First female president of the APA. Became a distinguished memory researcher. Denied Ph.D. by Harvard

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G. Stanley Hall

First American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. First president of the APA. Created the first American lab for psychology and studied child development

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Gestalt Psychology

Unit 1: Early psychological approach that looked at how our experiences are more than the sum of the parts that has little influence in modern psychology. Unit 3: Principles that explain how we interpret and group sensory information into cohesive wholes (Closure, Proximity, etc)

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Max Wertheimer

Created gestalt psychology

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Psychoanalysis

Unit 1: Theory that our unconscious mind influences our thoughts and behaviors. Unit 7: Freud's theories about personality and associated treatments. Unit 8: A therapeutic technique created by Sigmund Freud that focused on allowing patients to gain insight into repressed feelings using techniques like free association

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Sigmund Freud

Created the psychoanalytic approach. His theories mostly focused on the power of the unconscious.

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Behaviorism

An approach that focused on observable behaviors, ignoring any underlying cognitive factors. Created by John B. Watson

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B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist who created operant conditioning. Associated with his experiments with the skinner box/operant chamber.

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John B. Watson

Created behaviorism

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Humanistic approach

An approach that focused on an individual's ability to grow. Stressed free will and choice. Supported by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

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Biological approach

An approach that focused on how our biology impacts our psychology

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Evolutionary approach

An approach influenced by Darwin that looks at how human thought and behaviors are shaped by natural selection

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Behavioral approach

An approach that looks at observable behaviors (See behaviorism)

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Sociocultural approach

An approach that looks at how culture influences how people behavior and think

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Socio-cultural approach

An approach that looks at how culture influences how people behavior and think

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Jean Piaget

Unit 1: Studied child cognitive development. Unit 6: Created a cognitive-development theory with 4 stages (Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)

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Psychodynamic approach

An approach that looks at how the unconscious mind influences human thought and behaviors (See psychanalysis/Freud)

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Psychoanalytic approach

An approach that looks at how the unconscious mind influences human thought and behaviors (See psychanalysis/Freud)

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Developmental approach

An approach that looks at how people change over time

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Psychometric psychologists

Psychologists that study human traits and abilities

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Psychometrics

The study of human traits and abilities

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Basic research

Research that answers questions which do not have immediate practical purposes

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Applied research

Research that answers questions which apply to real-world situations

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Operational definition

How a variable in an experiment will be measured

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Validity

Accurately measured what it was supposed to measure

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Reliability

Results are consistent and able to be repeated

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Sampling

The process of selecting research participants

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Population

The entire group of people that could be selected as participants

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Random selection

A process of selecting participants where each individual in a population has an equal chance of being selected

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Random sampling

A process of selecting participants where each individual in a population has an equal chance of being selected

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Stratified sampling

A process of selecting participants where a population is divided into subcategories and individuals are randomely selected from each subcategory

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Experiment

Research conducted in a highly controlled environment, usually a lab

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Confounding variables

Variables other than the independent variable that may affect the dependent variable

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Assignment

The process of assigning participants to the experimental group or the control group

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Random assignment

A process of assigning participants where every participant has an equal chance of being In the experimental group or the control group

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Participant-relevant confounding variables

When participants are not randomely assigned

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Situation-relevant confounding variables

When the situations presented to the control and experimental group are somehow biased

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Experimenter bias

Any bias that may arise due to the experimenters

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Single-blind procedure

When the participants in a study do not know if they are in the control or experimental group

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Double-blind procedure

When both the participants and the researchers in a study do not know who is assigned to the control group and the experimental group

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Social desirability bias

The tendency for people to answer questions in ways that make them look better

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Pseudopsychology

False psychological practices that are not scientifically proven

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Confirmation bias

The tendency to easily accept information that conforms to our world view and to reject or discredit information that conflicts with it

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Plato

Ancient greek philosopher who believed that knowledge is innate

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Aristotle

Ancient greek philosopher who believed that knowledge was gained through experience

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Socrates

Ancient greek philosopher who believed that knowledge is innate

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Rene Descartes

French philosopher who believed that some ideas were innate. Correctly guessed that nerves were important in reflexes.

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Wolfgang Kohler

Gestalt psychologist who studied insight learning

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Cognitive neuroscience

A field that studies how the brain creates our mental processes

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Cognition

Mental processes such as perception, thoughts, memories, and sensations

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Clinical view

An emphasis on treating mental illness and maintaining mental health

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Scientific method

A method of experimentation that involves forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, gathering and analyzing data, and then publishing the results to be replicated

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Ex post facto

A quasi-experiment where subjects are chosen based on a pre-existing condition

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Correlational study

Research that measures how two variables correlate. CANNOT prove cause and effect.

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Survey

Research where questions are given to subjects. Allow for a lot of data to be collected, but can be subject to bias results

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Naturalistic observation

Research where subjects are observed in their natural environment

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Longitudinal study

Research where one group of subjects are observed/followed for an extensive period of time

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Cross-sectional study

Research where different age groups in a population are tested or surveyed at the same time.

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Independent variable

A variable being changed in an experiment. The "cause" being tested.

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Dependent variable

A variable being measured in an experiment. The "effect" that is measured.

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Hypothesis

A possible answer to a scientific question or a possible explanation to a scientific phenomenon.

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Theory

A testable explanation that can predict behaviors or events

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Institutional Review Board

An ethical committee that approves or rejects research proposals

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IRB

An ethical committee that approves or rejects research proposals involving people

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Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

An ethical committee that approves or rejects research proposals involving animals

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IACUC

An ethical committee that approves or rejects research proposals involving animals

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Frequency distribution

A way of displaying data that shows how often certain results occur

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Histogram

A bar graph showing a frequency distribution where the bars are touching

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Descriptive statistics

Numerical data that describes group characteristics

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Inferential statistics

Numerical data that helps to infer if a result is generalizable to the population

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Mean

The mathematical average of a group of scores

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Median

The middle number of all score listed from least to greatest

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Mode

The most common score in a group of scores

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest value of a group of scores

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Standard Deviation

The average distance of every score from the mean

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Measures of Central Tendency

Mean, median, mode

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Measures of Variation

Range, standard deviation

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Normal curve

A bell-shaped symmetrical curve that describes many types of data

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Normal distribution

A bell-shaped symmetrical curve that describes many types of data

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Correlation coefficient

A measure of how well two variables correlate.

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Cohort

A group of people from a given time period

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Statistical signficance

Means that a result has a p-value of 0.05 or below, or that the result measured has less than a 5% chance of being due to random chance.

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Statistically significant

Means that a result has a p-value of 0.05 or below, or that the result measured has less than a 5% chance of being due to random chance.

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P-value

A measure of how likely a result is due to chance.

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Z-score

Measure of Standard Deviation

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92

Dorothea Dix

Advocated for better treatment of the mentally ill

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Psychiatry

A medical field dealing with psychological disorders

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Psychiatrist

Trained physicians that are licensed to prescribe drugs

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Counseling psychologist

Psychologista that help people adjust to life changes. They often conduct therapy

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Clinical psychologist

Psychologists that promote psychological health

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Human factor psychologist

An type of I/O psychologist that specficially how machines and physical environments can be optimized

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Industrial-organizational psychologist

Psychologists that look at how people interact with their working environments

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Community psychologist

Psychologists that promote mental health in communities

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Case study

A research technique that involves following one individual in depth

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