Soil Sci 131

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soil

The loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow.

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clay, silt, sand

List soil particles from smallest to largest

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life, death, lifeless material

mix of organic and inorganic material in soils

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nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium

macronutrients in soil

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calcium, magnesium, sulphur

secondary elements in soil

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micro plant elements

Boron
Chlorine
Copper
Iron
Manganese
Molybdenum
Zinc

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Chlorine

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Copper

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Iron

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Manganese

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Molybdenum

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Zinc

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manure, compost, inorganic fertilizer

how to get nutrients in crops?

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toward the top

where is a soil more acidic

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acidic

do plants favir acidic or alkaline soils?

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deserts

region where soils tend to be alkaline

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rainfall

main factor that helps determine pH levelr

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iron

what colors soil red

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plant roots, soil organic mtter, and clays

binding agents in soils

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at the top due to organic matter

where is the soil darkest and why?

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human activities that change soil

tillage, weeding, terracing, irrigation, drainage, fertilizing, deep ploughing

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natural activities that change soils

acidification, clay movement, organic matter accumulation, weathering

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aggregates or peds

what soil particles re arranged into

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gelisol

Soils that are formed in cold regions and have permanent ice in the subsoil.

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histosol

soils with high content of organic matter; formed in areas with poor drainage;

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spodosols

acid forest soils

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andisols

soils developed from volcanic material, particularly ash

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oxisols

intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments

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vertisols

clay-rich soils which swell or shrink with moisture

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aridosols

common desert soils, soils of dry areas

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ultisols

strongly leached soils

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leaching

the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater

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mollisols

Soil order Prevalent in US

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Found in grasslands & have dark topsoil

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alfisols

moderately leached/weathered forest soils

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inceptisols

soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons

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entisols

soils with little or no morphological development

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Wisconsin soils

Alfisols

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Inceptisols

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Mollisols

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Spodosols

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Ultisols

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60 percent

By 2050, food production must increase by____

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95%

what percentage of food comes from the ground?

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60%

what percentage of people live on rice

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hydroponics

a technique of growing plants (without soil) in water containing dissolved nutrients

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Urban Food Systems

Urban agriculture, victory gardens, rooftop gardens

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mollisol

found across the Midwest, very fertile soils

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oxisols

in Africa and parts South America, toxic and not fertile at all

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problems with soils

Drought

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Mineral stress: low soil fertility, or high salinity (too salty)

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Frozen

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Wet

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Shallow

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water excess, shallow depth, drought

hard to fix soil problems

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mineral stress, acidity

easy to fix soil problems

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inherent soil problems

drainage and soil acidity

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erosion

Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)

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salinization

Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.

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acidification

The change in the chemical composition of soil, which may trigger the circulation of toxic metals.

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human-induced soil problems

erosion, desertification, pollution, loss of organic matter, acidification, nutrient making, salinization, compaction

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15%

Agriculture uses ___ of global energy demand

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sizes of the door

indicator for how fertile soils are

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texture and color

Properties used in indegemous classification commonly

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the poverty trap

low yield -> low income -> los inputs -> low yield

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short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, swollen legs and abdomen

effects of malnutrition

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40%

how many prescription drugs come from soil?

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60%

how many cancer drugs come from soil?

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a difference in tropical soils

there is a lack of difference between summer andn winter temperatures

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the tropics

where are volcanic ash deposits greatest?

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temperate regions

where are soils younger?

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oxisols

very red: high iron

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very weathered

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low pH - acid soils

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8 % globally

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very deep soils

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23%

what percentage of tropical soils are oxisols?

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weathered, deeper

in terms of depth and weathering, the older a a soils gets, the more ____ it becomes and the ____ it gets.

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formation of oxisols

under warm and humid conditions over long periods

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Slash and burn

A farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops

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ash

can be used as fertilizer due to lime and potassium contents

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Evapotranspiration

The evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants.

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50-90 feet

how deep can oxisols get?

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silica

when soils get older they typically lose _____

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silica

a material found in magma that forms from the elements oxygen and silicon

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alifsol to ultisol to oxisol

time-dependent soils (due to maturation and loss of silica)

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aridosols, spodosols, gelisols

climate-dependent soils

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vertisols, andisols, histosols

parent-material-specific soils

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entisols

soil of the Sahara and Australin Outback, are new soils, likesand dunes, which are too dry for any major soil horizon development.

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soil horizon

The layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it.

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biological crust

a living community of lichen, cyanobacteria, algae, and moss growing on the soil surface that bind the soil together

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33%

desert make up __ of global land area

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aridosols

Low precipitation and high evapuration precludes leaching and growth of lush vegetation

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  • accumulation of salts on the surface

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desert pavement

a surface layer of closely packed or cemented pebbles, rock fragments, etc., from which fine material has been removed by the wind in arid regions.

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desert varnish

A dark shiny coating of iron and manganese oxides that forms on rock surfaces exposed to desert air for a long time

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aridosol horizon

Sodium enriched clay horizon (throughdispersion)Prismatic or columnarstructure

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desertification

Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.

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selenium

aridosol toxic trace element

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Causes of desertification

Removal of the natural vegetation cover (fuelwood), agricultural activities, overgrazing

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