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The loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow.
clay, silt, sand
List soil particles from smallest to largest
life, death, lifeless material
mix of organic and inorganic material in soils
nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
macronutrients in soil
calcium, magnesium, sulphur
secondary elements in soil
micro plant elements
micro plant elementsBoron
manure, compost, inorganic fertilizer
how to get nutrients in crops?
toward the top
where is a soil more acidic
do plants favir acidic or alkaline soils?
region where soils tend to be alkaline
main factor that helps determine pH levelr
what colors soil red
plant roots, soil organic mtter, and clays
binding agents in soils
at the top due to organic matter
where is the soil darkest and why?
human activities that change soil
tillage, weeding, terracing, irrigation, drainage, fertilizing, deep ploughing
natural activities that change soils
acidification, clay movement, organic matter accumulation, weathering
aggregates or peds
what soil particles re arranged into
Soils that are formed in cold regions and have permanent ice in the subsoil.
soils with high content of organic matter; formed in areas with poor drainage;
acid forest soils
soils developed from volcanic material, particularly ash
intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments
clay-rich soils which swell or shrink with moisture
common desert soils, soils of dry areas
strongly leached soils
the transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater
Soil order Prevalent in US
Found in grasslands & have dark topsoil
moderately leached/weathered forest soils
soils with weakly developed subsurface horizons
soils with little or no morphological development
By 2050, food production must increase by____
what percentage of food comes from the ground?
what percentage of people live on rice
a technique of growing plants (without soil) in water containing dissolved nutrients
Urban Food Systems
Urban agriculture, victory gardens, rooftop gardens
found across the Midwest, very fertile soils
in Africa and parts South America, toxic and not fertile at all
problems with soils
Mineral stress: low soil fertility, or high salinity (too salty)
water excess, shallow depth, drought
hard to fix soil problems
mineral stress, acidity
easy to fix soil problems
inherent soil problems
drainage and soil acidity
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.
The change in the chemical composition of soil, which may trigger the circulation of toxic metals.
human-induced soil problems
erosion, desertification, pollution, loss of organic matter, acidification, nutrient making, salinization, compaction
Agriculture uses ___ of global energy demand
sizes of the door
indicator for how fertile soils are
texture and color
Properties used in indegemous classification commonly
the poverty trap
low yield -> low income -> los inputs -> low yield
short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, swollen legs and abdomen
effects of malnutrition
how many prescription drugs come from soil?
how many cancer drugs come from soil?
a difference in tropical soils
there is a lack of difference between summer andn winter temperatures
where are volcanic ash deposits greatest?
where are soils younger?
very red: high iron
low pH - acid soils
8 % globally
very deep soils
what percentage of tropical soils are oxisols?
in terms of depth and weathering, the older a a soils gets, the more ____ it becomes and the ____ it gets.
formation of oxisols
under warm and humid conditions over long periods
Slash and burn
A farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
can be used as fertilizer due to lime and potassium contents
The evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants.
how deep can oxisols get?
when soils get older they typically lose _____