A Psych Unit 2

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Phrenology (Franz Gall)

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Phrenology (Franz Gall)

theory that the bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and character traits

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Know parts of nueron

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know image

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Dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

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soma (cell body of neuron)

Contain nucleus and all structures necessary for cell functioning

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.

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terminal branches

Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons

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Vescicles

Provides temporary storage of food, enzymes and waste products

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Receptor sites

holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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resting potential

The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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refractory period

a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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Synapse (synaptic gap)

microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell

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Neurotransmitter

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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Reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction

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Dopamine

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

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Norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal

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GABA

a major inhibitory neurotransmitter - known for producing a calming effect.

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Glutamate

A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory

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Endorphins

"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

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Agonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response

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Antagonist

An antagonist is a chemical or drug that binds to receptors in the brain and prevents an agonist from having a reaction. An inverse antagonist not only prevents an agonist from having a reaction on a receptor but causes the opposite response to occur.

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The nervous system has two main parts: The central nervous system and The peripheral nervous system

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central nervous system

consists of the brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord- the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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Sensory (afferent) neuron

transmits impulse into brain or spinal cord from receptors

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Motor (efferent) neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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Neural networks

interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.

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Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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Reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

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Endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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Hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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pituitary gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

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adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.

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Epinephrine

adrenaline

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Norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal

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Lesion

tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

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Electroencephalogram

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

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CT scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body

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PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

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fMRI

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.

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Brain stem

Connects the brain and spinal cord

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Medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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Pons

A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

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Reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.

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Limbic System

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

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Amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.

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Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.

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Thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

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Nucleus accumbens

a subcortical structure that participates in reward and addiction

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corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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Pituitary

at the base of the brain; stimulates growth and controls functions of other glands

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Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

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Glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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frontal lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

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Parietal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

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occipital lobe

vision

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temporal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

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Motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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somatosensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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Association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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Plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

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Neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

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corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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Split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

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Michael Gazzaniga

split-brain research; understanding of functional lateralization in the brain; how the cerebral hemispheres communicate

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Consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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Cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

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Dual processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

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Behavior geneticist

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

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Chromosome

a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.

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DNA

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.

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Genes

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

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Genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

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Identical twins (monozygotic)

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

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Fraternal twins (dizygotic)

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; no genetically closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

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