CHAPTER 8

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123 Terms

1

gynecologist

diagnosis and treatment of female reproductive disorders, including the breasts

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2

obstetrics

covers pregnancy and childbirth including the physiological and pathological functions of the female reproductive tract; covers care of mother and fetus through pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period

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3

neonatology

a branch that focuses on care of the neonate (newborn) and disorders

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4

urology

disorders and care of the urinary tract in men and women, as well as the male reproductive system such as infertility and sexual dysfunction

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5

internal organs of the female reproductive system

ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts and uterine tubes), uterus, vagina

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6

external organs of the female reproductive system

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, Bartholin glands; collectively called the genitalia or vulva

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7

purpose of the female sex organs

to produce and transport ova, discharge ova, or nourish developing fetus

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8

female sex hormones and their purpose

estrogen and progesterone; responsible for secondary sex characteristic development (breast development, regulation of menstrual cycle); estrogen specifically is responsible for development of adipose tissue of the breast around glandular tissue

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9

organs of the male reproductive system

gonads (testes), sperm-transporting ducts (epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra), accessory glands (seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands), copulatory organ (penis)

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10

purposes of the male sex organs

-gonads produce gametes and secrete sex hormones -epididymis stores and propels sperm toward the urethra during ejaculation -vas deferens transports sperm from the testes to the urethra -seminal vesicles produce secretions that compose semen

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11

amin/o

amnion, amniotic sac

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12

cervic/o

neck, cervix uteri

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13

colp/o, vagin/o

vagina

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14

galact/o, lact/o

milk

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15

gynec/o

woman, female

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16

hyster/o, uter/o

uterus, womb

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17

mamm/o, mast/o

breast

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18

men/o

menses, menstruation

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19

metr/o

uterus, measure

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20

nat/o

birth

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21

oophor/o, ovari/o

ovary

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22

perine/o

perineum

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23

salping/o

tube (especially fallopian or eustachian auditory tubes)

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24

vulv/o, episi/o

vulva

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25

andr/o

male

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26

balan/o

glans penis

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27

gonad/o

gonads, sex glands

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28

orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o

testis

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29

muc/o

mucus

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30

olig/o

scanty

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31

prostat/o

prostate gland

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32

spermat/o, sperm/i, sperm/o

spermatozoa, sperm cells

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33

varic/o

dilated vein

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34

vas/o

vessel, vas deferens, duct

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35

-arche

beginning

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36

-gravida

pregnant women

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37

-para

to bear offspring

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38

-salpinx

tube (usually fallopian or eustachian auditory tube)

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39

-tocia

childborth, labor

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40

-version

turning

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41

curet

instrument used to scrape endometrium; serrated to scrape uterine lining in D&C

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42

uterine sound

instrument to examine uterine cavity

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43

cervical dilator

instrument to enable insertion of a curet

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44

CS

cesarean section

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45

D&C

dilation and curettage

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46

Dx

diagnosis

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47

G

gravida/pregnant

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48

GYN

gynecology

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49

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

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50

IVF

in vitro fertilization

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51

LMP

last menstrual period

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52

OB

obstetrics

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53

OB-GYN

obstetrics and gynecology

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54

OCP

oral contraceptive pill

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55

Pap

Papanicolaou test (pap smear)

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56

Para 1, 2, 3, etc

unipara, bipara, tripara, etc. (number of viable births)

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57

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

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58

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

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59

TAH

total abdominal hysterectomy

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60

TRAM

transverse rectus abdominis muscle

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61

TSS

toxic shock syndrome

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62

TVH

total vaginal hysterectomy

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63

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia, benign prostatic hypertrophy

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64

DRE

digital rectal exam

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65

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

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66

TRUS

transrectal untrasonography

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67

GC

gonorrhea

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68

HPV

human papillomavirus

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69

STI

sexually transmitted infection

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70

VD

venereal disease

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71

candidiasis

vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans; causes curdy, cheese like discharge and extreme itching

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72

dysmenorrhea

menstrual pain and tension

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73

ectopic pregnancy

implantation of fertilized ovum outside uterine cavity

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74

endometriosis

presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, such as the pelvis or abdomen

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75

fibroid

benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue; AKA leiomyoma

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76

gestational hypertension

potentially life-threatening disorder that usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy; causes edema and proteinuria -Preeclampsia - nonconvulsive form of gestational hypertension that may progress to eclampsia if left untreated -Eclampsia - convulsive form that is a medical emergency and life-threatening to mother and/or baby

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77

hyperplasia

excessive increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ

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78

leukorrhea

white discharge from vagina

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79

oligomenorrhea

scanty or infrequent menstrual flow

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80

sterility

inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman

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81

toxic shock syndrom (TSS)

rare and sometimes fatal Staph infection that generally occurs in menstruating women, mostly who use tampons

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82

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and adjacent pelvic structures, caused by bacterial an infection -Two most common causes are gonorrhea and chlamydia

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83

anorchism

congenital absence of one or both testes; AKA anorchidism or anorchia

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84

balanitis

inflammation of skin covering the glans penis

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85

cryptorchism

failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum; AKA cryptorchidism

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86

epispadias

congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis near the glans penis instead of tip

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87

hypospadias

congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis instead of the tip

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88

impotence

inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection; AKA erectile dysfunction

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89

phimosis

stenosis or narrowing of the preputial orifice so that foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis

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90

oligospermia

deficiency of spermatozoa in semen

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91

sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

any disease that may be acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with infected individual; affects male and female systems -chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes genitalis, HPV, syphilis, trichomoniasis

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92

chlamydia

bacterial infection that causes cervicitis in women and urethritis and epididymitis in men

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93

gonorrhea

bacterial infection of the mucous membrane of the genital tract in men and women

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94

herpes genitalis

highly contagious viral infection of male and female genitalia transmitted by direct contact with infected body secretions; differs in that it can recur spontaneously once acquired; AKA venereal herpes

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95

human papillomavirus (HPV)

infection of genital areas of men and women including the pelvis, vulva, anus, and rectal, cervical, and vaginal linings -over 40 types such as genital warts

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96

syphilis

infectious chronic STI with skin lesions (chancres), typically on genitals, rectum, or mouth

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97

trichomoniasis

infection of vagina or male genital tract that commonly causes vaginitis, urethritis, and cystitis

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98

amniocentesis

obstetric procedure involving surgical puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid, often to detect genetic abnormalities and blood incompatibility

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99

colposcopy

examination of vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying glass

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100

laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through 1 or more small incisions in the abdominal wall usually at the umbilicus

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