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Describe the Dodo Bird Effect

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Describe the Dodo Bird Effect

proposed by Rozenzweig (1936), it states that all psychotherapies are essentially equivalent and accomplish the same goal of human change

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Explain the Common Factors Approach

a core set of qualities are the mechanisms of action through which psychotherapy is effective

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Describe effect of therapist’s orientation on therapy effectiveness

only 15% effect, all orientations are about equally effective

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Define eclectic therapy

an approach that draws on multiple theoretical orientations and techniques. it is THE MOST POPULAR approach

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Describe why theory matters

Theories enable us to go beyond what we can observe or experience by virtue of their ability to reveal patterns or underlying mechanisms at different levels of analysis, and their observable effects.

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who is the major figure for

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud

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Describe the basic philosophy of psychoanalysis

Unconscious as most powerful source of behavior, Behavior determined by conflict between unconscious drives and defenses, Psychology is determined by age 6

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what is instinct theory?

Eros (life instinct, source of libido) & thanatos (Death instinct, source of destructive impulses)

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Topographic model of the mind (unconscious, preconscious, conscious)

Conscious: thoughts, preconceptions Preconscious: Memories Unconscious: fears, violent motives, etc.

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Structural model of the mind (id, ego, superego)

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where are the id, ego and superego located?

Ego only exists in the conscious,Superego is in all states, Id is only in the subconscious

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what are the defense mechanisms?

repression,denial, escape/fantasy, Rationalization, Projection

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what is repression?

the exclusion of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings from the conscious mind.

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what is denial?

Refusal to accept reality

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what is escape/fantasy?

Running away from problems through daydreams, entertainment, excessive sleep, etc.

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what is Rationalization?

An attempt to justify one’s actions with an excuse

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what is projection?

Externalization of an unacceptable wish

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what are the stages of development according to Freud?

oral,anal ,phallic,latency, and genital

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what is a healthy person in psychoanalysis?

ego in control, Doesn't repress, Able to let subconscious conflicts surface and recognize them, Progressed through psychosexual stages

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what is dysfunction in psychoanalysis?

Id/superego in control, use of defense mechanisms, unresolved unconscious conflicts, Unsuccessful psychosexual stages

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Describe psychoanalysis as a therapeutic approach

Use of projective assessment, Long-term therapy Client reveals everything that comes to mind, experiences resistance and transference, Therapist is a blank screen aims to correctly interpret the client’s unconscious material

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goals of psychoanalysis:

Catharsis, Insight, Ego strengthening

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techniques of psychoanalysis:

Free association, Interpretation, Analysis of resistance, Working through the transference, Dream analysis

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Describe the impact of psychoanalysis on the field

foundation of most modern theories

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Summarize research evidence for psychoanalysis

Hard to test many ideas, Classic psychoanalysis has rarely been tested, Some theories have been disproven (hallucinations = narcissism), while others have solid evidence (e.g., existence of subconscious processes), Evidence for therapeutic effectiveness is largely positive, about as effective as other therapies

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Describe neoanalytic models as a group

A group of modern theoretical approaches to therapy descended from Freud.

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Identify how neoanalytic models are similar to and different from Freud’s approach

they share Freud’s emphasis on unconscious processes and early childhood experiences, especially relationships with primary caregivers, but disagree on the importance of sexuality and in their understanding of the therapeutic relationship

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where do the major neoanalytic models fall in regards to motivators?

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where do the major neoanalytic models fall in regards to similarities to psychoanalysis

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who are the major figures in Ego psychology?

Anna Freud,Heinz Hartman, and Margaret Mahler

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what are the basic philosophies of ego psychology?

Focus on ego, Interest in ego adaptation (how ego adapts to external environment and internal pressures from id and superego), Importance of average acceptable environment (AAE)

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who is the major figure in self psychology?

Heinz Kohut

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Describe the basic philosophy of Self Psychology

Development of self-objects, including grandiose-exhibitionistic self and idealized parental imago, Importance of optimal frustrations and transmuting internalization

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who are the major figures in object relations theory?

Melanie Klein, Donald Winnicott, and Otto Kernberg

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Describe the basic philosophy of Object Relations theory

Development of internal objects based on relationships with primary caregivers

Use of primitive defenses (projection, introjection, splitting, projective identification)

Maturation from fragmentation to whole-experiencing Importance of good enough mother/safe holding environment

Individuation vs. attachment

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who is the major figure in relational psychoanalysis?

Harry Stack Sullivan

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Describe the basic philosophy of Relational Psychoanalysis

Definition of self

Importance of relationships

Relational matrix

Dysfunctional early/important relationships = dysfunctional relational templates and inauthenticity

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Describe modern psychodynamic therapy as a therapeutic approach

Little assessment

Long-term therapy

Therapy relationship itself as healing (creating AAE/safe holding environment)

Process over content

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Identify the goals of psychodynamic therapy:

Catharsis

Recognizing patterns in behavior and relationships

Gaining insight into patterns

Developing an integrated and authentic self

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Identify the techniques of psychodynamic therapy:

Interpretation of transference and countertransference

Creation of corrective emotional experience

Working through rupture and repair

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Summarize research evidence for psychodynamic therapy

Produces outcomes similar to other types of therapy

Gains may last longer than cognitive and behavioral treatments

Effective for depression, anxiety, somatic disorders, eating disorders, substance disorders, personality disorders, adjustment concerns, interpersonal difficulties

Seems to work especially well for clients with severe dysfunction

Less effective for very specific problems (e.g., specific phobia, panic disorder)

Like classic psychoanalysis, hard to test many aspects of

these theories Theories (especially EP and SP) are highly individualist

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who is the major figure in

Individual/Adlerian Psychology?

Alfred Adler

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Describe the basic philosophy of Individual Psychology

Everyone is in charge of their own destiny

People have an innate tendency to strive for perfection

Goals are the most important motivator of human behavior

Balance of social interest and inferiority feelings determine personality (and balance is influenced by early childhood experiences)

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what was Alder interested in?

what happens if inferiority feelings are too strong or too weak in adulthood

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what is an inferiority complex?

a person with unusually high level of inferiority feelings that contributes to extreme feelings of inadequacy

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what is a superiority complex?

a person with unusually low level of inferiority feelings, and therefore is devoid of social interest

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what is a lifestyle in individual psychology?

Lifestyle: plan for entire life

Developed by age 6

Involves one primary goal

Guides our existence, including choices, actions, and understanding of the world

our way of adapting to our circumstances

mostly unconscious

created by the individual

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what are the 5 basic tasks in individual psychology?

community, occupation, love, self/being, existentialism

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what is the community task in individual psychology?

finding ways to live in and contribute to one’s community

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what is the occupation task in individual psychology?

finding a valuable and fulfilling career

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what is the love task in individual psychology?

forming a loving heterosexual partnership

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what is the self/being task in individual psychology?

getting along with yourself and finding yourself worthy

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what is the Existentialism task in individual psychology?

figuring out the meaning of life, with or without religion

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what are the 5 basic mistakes in individual psychology?

overgeneralizations, false goals of security, misperceptions of life, minimization of one’s worth, faulty values

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give an example of overgeneralizations in individual psychology

it will always be this way

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give an example of False goals of security in individual psychology

I should always feel safe and secure

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give an example of Misperceptions of life

the world should accommodate me

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give an example of the Minimization of one’s worth

I can’t be successful in life

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give an example of faulty values

I don’t care about other people

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what makes a healthy person in individual psychology?

Have social interest

Have managed their inferiority feelings

Succeed at contributing to community, finding love, doing socially useful work

Have the courage to be imperfect

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what is an unhealthy person in individual psychology?

Lack social interest

Extreme levels of inferiority

Too focused on gaining personal superiority

Basic mistakes prevent them from achieving basic tasks

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Describe Individual Psychology as a therapeutic approach

involves a great deal of formal and informal

Structured interviews towards lifestyle

What are you driving towards

“The Question”: What would be different if your symptoms disappeared

Family constellation

Earliest recollections

Dreams

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Explain Adler’s theory of personality development

birth order determines personality

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what is the firstborn’s personality in individual psychology?

Seek out authority position

Love rules

Risk-averse

May rebel because they resent being usurped

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what is the personality of the second child in individual psychology

Best position

Try to catch up to the firstborn

May be discouraged if they can't

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middle child personality

Squeezed by older and younger kids Lack advantage of parental interest Feel ignored

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Youngest child personality

Center of attention, May be overprotected

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Identify the goals of Individual Psychology:

Give client insight into their lifestyle

Move towards greater social interest

Manage inferiority feelings

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Identify the techniques of Individual Psychology:

Interpretation Encouragement Humor Natural and logical consequences Acting “as if” Pushing the button Catching oneself Creating images Pleasing someone Paradoxical Intention/Anti-Suggestion

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Describe the impact of Individual Psychology on the field

Helped inspire many later theories

Among the first to truly consider the influence of social factors (e.g., sexism, racism) on personality and behavior

Has been criticized as too simple and too vague

Doesn’t apply well to non-traditional families

homophobic

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who is the major figure in person-centered therapy?

Carl Rogers

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basic philosophy of person centered therapy:

Human beings are inherently good

All organisms naturally develop toward wholeness and integration

Motivation for behavior is innate need to grow

Anti-social behavior is a product of experience in the environment

Clients are able to accept responsibility for their actions and solve their own problems

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define experience as a noun

everything going on within an individual at a given moment

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define experience as a verb

process of perceiving what's going on. In order to grow, we must perceive the environment accurately

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what is actualizing tendency?

Tendency of all organisms to pursue biological and psychological growth, Automatically progress towards autonomy, health, and complexity

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explain Organismic valuing process OVP

Internal compass that helps move us towards growth People move towards growth-producing experiences

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explain Self-actualizing tendency (SAT):

Natural tendency for self-concept Need for positive regard and self-worth

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what is congruence?

Perceived self and ideal self are similar

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what is Incongruence

Perceived self and ideal self are different

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what are conditions for worth?

When certain aspects of self are perceived as being approved/disapproved by important others, conditions of worth are developed

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what is an internal locus of evaluation

Decisions are made on the OVP

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what is an external locus of evaluation

Decisions are made on internalized COWs

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Explain Roger’s theory of personality development

Development is lifelong and is motivated by self-actualizing tendency and need for positive regard

Important for others to provide us with unconditional positive regard- move to self actualization

Conditional positive regard - we develop COWs and incongruence

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what is a healthy person in person-centered therapy

Are congruent

Perceive the environment accurately

Have an internal locus of evaluation

Are creative

Are willing to live at odd with society/culture

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what are unhealthy people in person-centered therapy

Incongruent

Have a distorted perception of the environment

Have an external locus of evaluation

Are defensive

Are conformist

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Describe Person-Centered Therapy as a therapeutic approach

No assessment or diagnosis

Therapy as a real, human encounter

Client is in driver’s seat and must be in contact with their inner experience as much as possible

Therapist creates the core conditions, which are thought to be necessary and sufficient for client healing: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy

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Identify the goals of Person-Centered Therapy:

Facilitate client’s journey toward actualization

Decrease incongruence and increase congruence

Eliminate conditions of worth

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Identify the techniques of Person-Centered Therapy (though remember that Rogers was technique-skeptical):

Open-ended questions

Restatements

Reflections of feelings

Focusing

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Describe the impact of Person-Centered Therapy on the field

most influential theory after psychoanalysis

All modern approaches acknowledge the importance of the therapeutic relationship

Most modern approaches incorporate some aspects of empathy, positive regard, and genuineness (though perhaps not the way Rogers meant them)

Rogers modeled a new way of being as a therapist

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Summarize research evidence for Person-Centered Therapy

About as effective as other therapies

Effective for adjustment concerns, relational concerns, depression, anxiety, PTSD, and borderline personality disorder Seems to work best for clients with relatively mild dysfunction

Therapist empathy shown to be strongly related to client outcome

Research suggests that core conditions are necessary, but not sufficient

Clients from non-white, non-Western backgrounds may not benefit from non-directiveness and focus on emotional disclosure

How does self-actualizing tendency interact with systemic barriers?

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what are the roots of existential therapy

existential philosophy

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who was a major figure in existential therapy

Viktor Frankl

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Describe the basic philosophy of Existential Therapy

Humans are free and responsible for their own lives

Humans have the potential for self-actualization

Primary motivation is the search for meaning (either finding inherent meaning, or creating meaning in meaningless universe)

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what are the 4 models of being

Being in the physical world, Being in the social world, Being in the psychological world,Being in the spiritual world

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what is existential anxiety?

most powerful type of anxiety, associated with our awareness of our own mortality

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what are the ultimate concerns?

death, freedom, meaninglessness, isolation

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describe the death concern

  • We know we’re going to die

  • We spend a lot of energy avoiding or denying this fact

  • facing mortality can give meaning to life

  • Death/anxiety about death are the source of most psychological problems

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describe the freedom concern

  • People are responsible for their own choices

  • Thus, we have responsibility for the outcomes of our choices (or failure to make a choice)

  • Even with no other choices, people can choose their attitude

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describe the meaningless concen

  • There is no inherent meaning to life (or, meaning is unique)

  • Meaning only comes through suffering

  • It is terrifying to realize that there is no meaning, because it means we will not “live on” after we die

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describe the isolation concern

  • We are ultimately alone

  • Loneliness is an inherent part of being human

  • We may try to deal with isolation by clinging to relationships or avoiding relationships  both are dysfunctional

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