Nervous System Review & Cranial Nerves

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Divisions of Nervous System by Location

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Divisions of Nervous System by Location

CNS and PNS

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CNS

brain and spinal cord (motor & sensory components)

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PNS

31 pairs of spinal nerves (motor and sensory components) and 12 cranial nerves (motor or sensory or both)

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Divisions of Nervous System by Function

somatic (voluntary & reflex), visceral (autonomic, involuntary), and enteric(nervous tissue within intestinal tract)

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Visceral components

parasympathetic(rest and digest) and sympathetic (fight or flight)

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enteric nervous tissue

nervous tissue within intestinal tract, can act independently of CNS or ANS

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Divisions of nervous system by development

somatic, visceral, and branchial

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Somatic Division

skeletal muscle efferent and general sensory afferent

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Visceral Division

smooth muscle efferent and general visceral afferent

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Branchial Division

skeletal muscles of head and neck derived from branchial arches

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Motor Nurons Efferent are

multipolar

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Afferent Sensory neurons are

unipolar

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Somatic Structures derive from

Embryonic paraxial somites (ex skeletal muscles)

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Visceral Structure include

gut, heart, lungs, glands, genitourinary systems & glands

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Branchial Structures develop from

branchial arches of the embryo

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Things that develop from somatic cells

eye, ear, nerve cord, notochord, trunk wall, tail, and skeletal muscle

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Things that develop from visceral portion

jaws, pharynx, gut, and associated parts including branchial mm

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What nerve innervates the 1st branchial arch

trigeminal N (CNV)

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what nerve innervates the 2nd arch

facial N (CNVII)

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what nerve innervates 3rd arch

glossopharyngeal N (CNIX)

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what nerve innervates the 4th and 6th arch

Vagus N (CNX)

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What nerve innervates the 5th arch?

No nerve, no arch

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What develops from arch 1?

malleus and incus

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What develops from arch 2?

stapes and stylohyoid ligament

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What develops from arch 3?

hyoid body

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What develops from arch 4?

thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

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General Visceral Efferent Motor Nerves (GVE)

autonomic fibers to smooth and cardiac muscle, parasympathetic for cranial and sacral nerves, sympathetic for spinal nerves in thoracic and lumbar regions

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General Somatic Efferent motor nerves (GSE)

innervate skeletal muscles derived from somites

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T/F all spinal nerves have GVE and GSE Fibers

True

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Special Visceral or Branchial Efferent motor nerves (SVE or BE)

innervate striated muscles derived from branchial arches

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Where are SVE or BE branches found?

In cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, XI

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General Somatic Afferent sensory nerves (GSA)

touch, pain, heat loss/gain, & proprioception from the body

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General visceral afferent sensory nerves (GVA)

touch, pain, and proprioception from viscera

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T/F all spinal nerves have GSA and GVA fibers

True

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Special Visceral Afferent nerves (SVA)

olfaction and taste

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where are special visceral afferent nerves found?

cranial nerves I, VII, IX, and X

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Special Somatic Afferent Nerves

vision and hearing/equilibrium

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where are special somatic afferent nerves found?

cranial nerves II and VIII

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autonomic nervous system

control of involuntary/subconscious regulation of visceral effector organs: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands

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How many neurons are required for a motor response

2, pre and post ganglionic fibers

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Sympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous System (SANS)

fight or flight response

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What nervous outflow to paravertebral ganglia

thoracolumbar (T1-L2)

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Parasympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous System (PANS)

rest and digest function

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Craniosacral outflow of PANS

CNIII, VII, IX, X to cranial autonomic ganglia and S2-4 outflow to prevertebral ganglia

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Organization of ANS

brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, hypothalamus, medulla

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hypothalamus

coordinates and maintains homeostasis, regulates and integrates visceral activity like heart rate, blood flow, glucose levels, gland secretion, GI motility

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medulla

reflex center: cough, vomit, sneeze, respiration, hiccup, swallow

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Sympathetic ganglia of head and neck

superior cervical ganglion

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Parasympathetic 4 cranial ganglion

ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic

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CNIII ganglion

Ciliary ganglion

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CN VII ganglions

pterygopalatine ganglion and submandibular ganglion

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CN IX ganglion

Otic ganglion

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CN I skull foramina

cribiform plate

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CN I nuclei

mitral cells of olfactory bulb

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CN I function and distribution

special sensory smell, there are thousands of olfactory nn passing through the cribiform plate to the bulb

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CN II skull foramina

optic canal

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CN II nuclei

retinal ganglion cells

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CN II function and distribution

special sensory vision, deep in retina about 1.5 million ganglia cells transmit sensory info through the optic N

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CN III skull formina

superior orbital fissure

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CN III nuclei

oculomotor and endinger-westphal

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CN III action, occulomotor nuclei

somatic motor to most extrinsic eyeball muscles

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CNIII action, edinger-westphal nucleus

visceral motor (parasympathetic and sympathetic) to iris and ciliary muscles of eye

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CNIV skull foramina

supraorbital fissure

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CN IV Nuclei

Trochlear

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CN IV function

somatic motor to superior oblique

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CN V1 skull foramina

supraorbital fissure

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CN V2 skull foramina

foramen rotundum

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CN V3 skull foramina

foramen ovale

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CN V nuclei

trigeminal nucleus and masticator nucleus

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Action of trigeminal nucleus

general sensory from face, scalp, mucosa of oral and nasal cavities and pharynx

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Action of masticator nucleus

branchial motor to muscles of mastication, anterior digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini

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CN VI foramina

supraorbital fissure

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CN VI nuclei

abducens

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CN VI action

somatic motor to lateral rectus

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CN VII foramina

in auditory meatus, facial canal, stylomastoid foramen

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CN VII nuclei

gustatory, trigeminal, facial nucleus, and superior salivatory

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Gustatory nuclei action

special sensory taste of ant 2/3 of tongue

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Trigeminal Nuclei action of VII

general sensory to external auditory meatus and ear

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Facial Nucleus action

branchial motor to facial expressions muscle, stylohyoid, digastric posterior belly, stapedius

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Superior Salivatory nucleus action

parasympathetic fibers to head gland EXCEPT parotid

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CN VIII skull foramina

internal auditory meatus

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CN VIII nuclei

cochlear and vestibular

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Cochlear nuclei action

special sense hearing

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Vestibular nuclei action

special sensory equilibrium

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CNIX skull foramina

jugular foramen

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CN IX nuclei

gustatory, trigeminal, solitary, ambiguous, inferior salivatory

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gustatory nuclei of CN IX

special sensory taste to post 1/3 of tongue

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Trigeminal nuclei of CNIX

general sensory to post 1/3 of tongue, pharynx and middle ear

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Solitary Nucleus action

visceral sensory of carotid body and sinus

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ambiguous nuclei action

branchial motor to stylopharyngeus

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Inferior salivatory nuclei action

visceral motor to parotid gland

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CN X skull foramina

jugular foramen

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CNX nuclei

ambiguous, gustatory, solitary, and dorsal vagal

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Ambiguous nuclei of CN X

branchial motor to larynx, pharynx, and soft palate

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Gustatory nucleus action of CN X

special sensory taste from laryngeal inlet

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Solitary nucleus action of CNX

visceral sensory from gut, lungs, heart

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Dorsal vagal nuclei

visceral motor to thorax/gut (parasympathetic)

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CN XI skull foramina

jugular foramen

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CN XI nuclei

accessory

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CN XI action

branchial motor to trapezius and SCM

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