PHED Final

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any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress

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1

any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress

stressor

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2

the physiological changes associated with stress

stress response

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3

the collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual's homeostasis

stress

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4

a chemical messenger produced in the body and transported in the bloodstream to target cells or organs for specific regulation of their activities

hormone

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5

a steroid hormone secreted by the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland, also called hydrocortisone

cortisol

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6

a hormone secreted by the medulla (inner core) of the adrenal gland that affects the functioning of organs involved in responding to a stressor

adrenaline/epinephrine

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7

brain secretions that have pain-inhibiting effects

endorphins

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8

a defense reaction that prepares an individual for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and other changes

fight or flight reaction

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9

a state of stability and consistency in an individual's physiology

homeostasis

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10

a state of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion

burnout

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11

hormones trigger physiological changes: hearing and visual acuity are ----- heart rate ----- liver releases extra sugar into the blood stream for ---- use perspiration ---- to cool the skin endorphins are released to relieve ---- in case of injury

increased, accelerates, energy, increases, pain

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12

After the stressor ends, the division of the autonomic nervous system attempts to restore homeostasis. The heart rate, blood pressure, and hormone levels are returned to normal.

parasympathetic

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13

The fight-or-flight reaction prepares the body for physical action regardless of whether such a response is necessary to deal with the stressor. ---- for most modern stressors.

inappropriate

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14

the sum of emotional and behavioral tendencies

personality

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15

“----” personalities tend to react more explosively to stressors and have difficulty coping. People with “-----” personalities are more relaxed and contemplative. People with “----” personalities view stressors as challenges and learning opportunities; they tend to react more mildly to stressors and to perceive fewer situations as stressful.

type a, type b, hardy

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16

-------- is probably the most serious long-term effect of stress. Chronic ----- is a major cause of atherosclerosis, which can lead to strokes, heart attacks, and death.

high blood pressure

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17

people who react to stressors with hostility, anger, distrust, or cynicism are more likely to be at risk for -----

cvd

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18

Stress may affect the system and make us vulnerable to disease.

immune

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19

Many other health problems are aggravated by stress, including

digestive problems, headaches, fatigue, and injuries

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20

common sources of stress

major life changes, daily hassels, college stressors, job-related stressors, interpersonal and social stressors, environmental, internal

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21

Using tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, or food as a stress reducer i

counterproductive stress strategies

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22

---- can reduce anxiety and blood pressure.

  1. People who ---- regularly react with milder physical stress before, during, and after exposure to stressors, and their general well-being is better.

  2. Even light ----- can be beneficial in stress reduction.

  3. One exception is overtraining; people who exercise compulsively experience negative physical and psychological effects.

exercise

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23

Limit or avoid caffeine. 2. High-potency vitamin compounds and amino acid supplements marketed as stress formulas are ineffective at reducing tension.

nutrition

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24

Fatigue and lack of sleep can be a major stressor and contribute to accidents.

sleep

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25

has been linked to longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease and faster recovery, and improved emotional health.

spiritual wellness

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26
  1. Set priorities.

  2. Schedule tasks for peak efficiency.

  3. Set realistic goals and write them down.

  4. Budget enough time.

  5. Break up long-term goals into short-term ones.

  6. Visualize the achievement of your goals.

  7. Keep track of the tasks you put off.

  8. Consider doing your least favorite task first.

  9. Consolidate tasks when possible.

  10. Identify quick transitional tasks.

  11. Delegate responsibility.

  12. Say no when necessary.

  13. Give yourself a break.

  14. Avoid your personal time sinks

time management

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27
  1. Modify Expectations Unrealistic expectations can lead to disappointment and restrict experience.

  2. Monitor Self-Talk Minimize hostile, critical, and self-deprecating thoughts.

  3. Live in the Present Don’t waste time worrying about past troubles or possible future problems.

  4. “Go with the Flow” Accept what you can’t change, forgive faults, be flexible.

  5. Laugh Positive humor can be therapeutic, elevating heart rate, aiding digestion, relaxing muscles, easing pain, and triggering the release of endorphins and other pleasurable and stimulating chemicals.

cognitive techniques

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28
  1. Peer counseling is often available on campus. It’s usually staffed by student volunteers who have received special training and who will advise you confidentially.

  2. Support groups are generally composed of people with a similar problem, such as foreign students learning to deal with a new country and school or people with eating disorders. Simply sharing a concern can relieve stress.

  3. Professional Help Psychotherapy can be extremely helpful in managing stress-related problems. Shop around for a therapist who suits your personality and budget.

outside help for stress (watch out for depression, as this is linked with suicide)

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29

the science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease

nutrition

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30

substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs. These nutrients include proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals, and water

essential nutrients

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31

the process of breaking down foods in the gastrointestinal tract into compounds the body can absorb

digestion

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32

essential nutrients required by the body in relatively large amounts (carbs, fats, proteins)

macronutrients

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33

essential nutrients required by the body in minute amounts (vitamins and minerals)

micronutrients

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34

a measure of energy content in food: 1 --- represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 L of water 1 degree Celcius

kilocalorie

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35

an essential nutrient, a compound made of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

protein

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36

the building blocks of proteins

amino acids

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37

vegetables such as peas and beans that are high in fiber and are also important sources of protein

legumes

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38

a fat with no carbon-carbon double bonds: usually solid at room temp

saturated fat

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39

a fat with one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temp

monounsaturated fat

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40

a fat containing 2 or more carbon-carbon double bonds; liquid at room temp

polyunsaturated fat

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41

a waxy substance found in the blood and cells needed for cell membranes, vitamin D, and hormone system

cholesterol

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42

blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues, excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery wall

low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

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43

blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease

high-density lipoprotein (HDL)

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44

an essential nutrient, sugars, starches, and dietary fiber are all this

carbs

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45

a simple sugar that is the body's basic fuel

glucose

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46

an animal starch stored in the liver and muscles

glycogen

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47

nondigestible carbs and lignin and that are intact in plants

dietary fiber

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48

organic substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body

vitamins

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49

a substance that protects against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules

antioxidant

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50

inorganic compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions

minerals

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51

a deficiency in the oxygen-carrying material in the RBC

anemia

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52

a condition in which the bones become thin and brittle and break easily

osteoporosis

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53

an electron seeking compound that can react with fats, proteins, and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes in its search for electrons; produced through chemical reactions in the body and by exposure to environmental factors such as sunlight and tobacco smoke

free radical

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54

a food group plan that provides practical advice to ensure a balanced intake of the essential nutrients

food guide pyramid

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55

amounts of certain nutrients considered adequate to prevent deficiencies in most healthy people; will eventually be replaced by the dietary reference intakes (DRIs)

recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)

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56

what are the 6 classes of essential nutrients?

proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals, water

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57

the body requires about -- essential nutrients

45

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58

nutrients are released in the body through ------: the provide energy, measured in the form of kcals; build and maintain body tissue; and regulate body functions

digestion

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59

what is the most significant nutrient?

water

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60

what percentage of our body comp is water?

60%

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61

which 3 of the 6 classes of nutrients provide energy?

carbs, fats, proteins

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62

--- form muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones. provide energy at 4 calories/gram of weight

protein

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63

-- common AAs, -- of which are essential (found in food)

20, 9

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64

foods are ------ if they supply all 9 essential AAs, they are _____ if they provide fewer

complete, incomplete

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65

meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy, other foods from animal sources

complete proteins

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66

plant sources such as beans, peas, and nuts

incomplete proteins

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67

most americans consume --- protein than they need each day

more

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68

.8g/kg of body weight. -% of total daily calories should be protein

10-35%

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69

excess protein is stored as --- or burned for energy

fat

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70

insulate the body and cushion organs. the most calorie-dense form of energy. 9 calories/gram

fat

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71
  • fats are essential and regulate body functions, such as the maintenance of blood pressure and the progress of a healthy pregnancy

2

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72

most fats are in the form of ------, which contain 3 fatty acid chains and a glycerin molecule

triglycerides

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73

there are saturated, monosaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. the degree of saturation refers to the # of ----- ----- between carbon atoms on a fatty acid chain

double bonds

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74

found in meat, full-fat dairy products, and palm and coconut oils. Typically solid at room temp

saturated fatty acids

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75

from plant sources and fish, are typically liquid at room temp

unsaturated fatty acids

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76

When unsaturated fatty acids undergo the process of --, a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is produced. ----- also produces trans fatty acids, which have an atypical shape and properties. Baked foods prepared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, stick margarine, and deep-fried fast food are leading sources of trans fatty acids in the diet.

hydrogenation

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77

Saturated and trans fatty acids ----- levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), whereas unsaturated fatty acids ----- low-density lipoproteins.

increase, lower

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78

To decrease ---- fat, reduce the amount of meat and full-fat dairy products in your diet. To decrease the amount of ---- fats, reduce your intake of deep- fried foods and baked goods made from hydrogenated vegetable oils.

saturated, trans

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79

-------- fatty acids, such as those found in olive and canola oils, may also increase levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

monounsaturated

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80

In large amounts, trans fatty acids may ----- HDL.

lower

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81

____- forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health by reducing the possibility of a blood clot forming, decreasing the inflammatory response in the body, and raising HDL levels.

omega-3

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82

In addition, high intake of fats is associated with increased risk of some -----and difficulty with ----- management.

cancers, weight

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83

Recommended Fat Intake a. About - teaspoons of vegetable oil per day incorporated into the diet will supply the essential fats. b. Total fat intake should be % of total calories.

3-4. 20-35%

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84

an ideal source of energy, needed in the diet primarily to supply energy to body cells

carbs

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85

Simple carbohydrates contain only one (monosaccharide) or two (disaccharide) ---- units per molecule. They include most sugars and are found naturally in fruits and milk.

sugar

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86

Complex carbohydrates consist of ---- of sugar molecules (polysaccharides). They include ______—found in a variety of plants, including grains, legumes, and tubers—and _____ ______—found in fruits, vegetables, and grains.

chains, starches, dietary fiber

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87

During digestion, the body breaks down starches and double sugar molecules into single-sugar molecules, such as -----, for absorption into the blood. (1) Cells use the glucose for -----, and the liver and muscles store it as ----- for fuel during endurance events or long workouts. (2) Excess carbohydrates are stored as ----.

glucose, energy, glycogen, fat

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88

----- carbohydrates (whole-wheat flour, brown rice, whole grains) are recommended over those that have been ----- because they are digested more slowly and may decrease risk for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

unrefined, refined

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89

------ ---- a. Insulin and glucose levels rise and fall following a meal or snack containing any type of carbohydrate. b. Some foods cause a quick and dramatic rise in glucose and insulin levels; others have a slower, more moderate effect. c. A food that has a strong effect on blood glucose levels is said to have a high glycemic index. d. Diets rich in high glycemic-index foods tend to increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease.

glycemic index

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90

Recommended Carbohydrate Intake a. Adequate daily intake of carbohydrate is --- grams per day. Health experts recommend that carbohydrates make up - percent of total daily calories. b. The focus should be on consuming a variety of foods rich in complex carbohydrates, especially whole grains. c. ------ in training can especially benefit from high-carbohydrate diets (60–70% of total daily calories), which will enhance the amount of carbohydrate stores in their muscles (as glycogen) and therefore provide more carbohydrate fuel for use during endurance events or long workouts.

130, 45-65%, athletes

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91

nondigestible carbs provided mainly by plants

fiber

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92

----- ------ refer to nondigestible carbohydrates that are present naturally in plants; functional fiber refers to nondigestible carbohydrates that have been either isolated from natural sources or synthesized in a lab and then added to a food or supplements. Total fiber is the sum of dietary and functional fiber. Different types of fiber help prevent disease.

dietary fiber

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93

----- (soluble) fiber slows the body’s absorption of glucose and binds cholesterol- containing compounds in the intestine, lowering blood cholesterol levels. A diet high in soluble fiber can reduce risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

viscous

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94

----- ----- binds water, making feces bulkier and softer so they pass more easily through the intestines. High levels of insoluble fiber help prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulitis; and some studies have linked it with lowered incidences of certain cancers.

insoluble fiber

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95

All plant foods contain ----, but fruit, legumes, oats, barley, and psyllium are particularly rich in it. Wheat, cereals, grains, and vegetables are good sources of insoluble fiber. ------- of food can remove fiber.

fiber, processing

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96

Recommended Intake of Dietary Fiber Experts recommend that we consume --- (women) to --- (men) grams of fiber a day.

25, 38

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97

humans need -- vitamins, including -- fat-soluble and -- water-soluble

13, 4, 9

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98

----- help release energy, assist in the production of red blood cells, and help maintain the nervous, skeletal, and immune systems.

vitamins

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99

sources of vitamins

fruits, vegetables, and grains

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both ----- and ---- of vitamins can be harmful and even life-threatening

deficiencies, excesses

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