bio keystone pt 1

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Asexual

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111 Terms

1

Asexual

Formation of a new organism from one parent: organism is a clone

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2

Sexual

Two cells from different parents unite to produce the 1st cell of new organism

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3

Autotroph

Obtains energy from the sun

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4

Heterotroph

Obtains energy from consuming other organisms

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5

Homeostasis

Keeping internal condition stable relative to the external environment

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6

Hypothesis

A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it

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7

Cohesion

Water sticking to water

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8

Adhesion

Water sticking to something else

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9

Specific Heat

The amount of energy required to raise one gram of water 1 degree Celsius

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10

Valence Shell

Enables east formation of four covalent bond

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11

Covalent Bonds

Sharing of electrons between two atoms

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12

Carbon

Has the ability to form long chains by forming several bonds in a row

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13

Variety

Created by the many partners that carbon can bond with

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14

Polarity

A description of the balance of charges in a molecule

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15

Polar

The charges are not balanced

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16

Nonpolar

There is a balance of charges

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17

Macromolecules

Very large molecules that are mostly polymers

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18

Polymers

Long chains on bonded groups

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19

Monomers

The molecules that link to form polymers

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20

Dehydration Synthesis

Generates bonds and is a common way for polymers to form

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21

Hydrolysis

The process of breaking apart by adding water

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22

Carbohydrates

Broken down through hydrolysis to serve as fuel for the body or a source of carbon

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23

Saccharide

Sugar

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24

Monosaccharide

1 sugar

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25

Disaccharide

2 sugars

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26

Polysaccharide

More than 2 sugars

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27

Cellular Respiration

The process through which the body generates energy, or ATP

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28

Lipids

Nonpolar macromolecules made from long carbon chains and can be saturated or unsaturated

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29

Fats

Store large amounts of energy

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30

Phospholipids

Compose cell membranes

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31

Steroids

Made of four connected carbon rings with functional groups attached

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32

Saturated

Have a linear shape and only single bonds between carbons

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33

Unsaturated

Have a nonlinear shape and double or triple bonds

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34

Proteins

Amino acid polymers that are essential to life

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35

Amino Acids

Have amino and carboxylic acid groups and are unique by the "R" group

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36

Nucleic Acids

Polymers of nucleotides

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37

Nucleotides

Monomers that consist of pentose attached to a phosphate group and nitrogen base

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38

Pentose

Deoxyribose or ribose

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39

DNA and RNA

Central to heredity and are made unique by the nitrogenous base that is attached

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40

Nitrogenous Bases

Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil, Adenine, or Guanine

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41

Catalysts

Increase the rate of a reaction without being changed by the reaction

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42

Substrates

The reactants on which enzymes work

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43

Rate of Reaction

Increased by the presence of specific enzymes

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44

Active Site

Part of an enzyme that interacts with a substrate

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45

Enzyme Reaction Rates

Impacted by temperature, pH and substrate concentration

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46

Temperature

A measure of kinetic energy

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47

Kinetic Energy

The energy of motion

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48

pH

Measures acidity

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49

Concentration

A measure of how many substrate molecules are present in a given volume

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50

Point Of Saturation

The concentration where the reaction rate is maximized

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51

Organic Compounds

Containing carbon and hydrogen

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52

Oxygen Acts...

Negative

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53

Hydrogen Acts...

Positive

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54

Carbohydrates have a...

1:2:1 ratio of the elements C:H:O

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55

Cell Theory

  1. All living things are made of cells

  2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things

  3. New cells are produced from existing cells

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56

Prokaryotic Cells

Single-celled organisms that lack internal membrane-bound compartments

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57

Eukaryotic Cells

Cells with membrane-bound compartments with organelles such as the nucleus

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58

Cell Membrane

Surrounds the cell

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Nucleus

Control center for all cell functions

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60

Nucleolus

Site of RNA synthesis, and it may also be responsible for the production of ribosomes

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61

Cytoplasm

The material in the cell, outside the nucleus

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62

Mitochondria

Found in the cytoplasm

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63

Chloroplasts

Contain green pigment called chlorophyll, which carries on the process of photosynthesis

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64

Ribosomes

Are small, dense granules found free in the cytoplasm and the nucleus and lining the membranes of some endoplasmic reticulum and are made in the nucleolus

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65

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A membrane-bound system of channels or tubes through which materials are transported within the cell

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Rough ER

Ribosomes on the surface and is found mainly in cells involved in protein synthesis

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67

Smooth ER

No ribosomes and found mainly in cells involved in the synthesis of nonprotein substances

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68

Golgi Apparatus

Made up of a series of membrane-enclosed sacs, and is usually found near the nucleus

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69

Lysosomes

Sacs of digestive enzymes and keeps the enzymes separated from the rest of the cell contents until they are needed

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70

Vacuoles

Membrane-enclosed structures that are generally filled with water containing various dissolved substances

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71

Centrosome

Small organelles found just outside the nucleus in animals

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72

Centrioles

Two small structures that are necessary for the movement of chromosomes during cell division

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73

Cell Wall

Structure found outside the cell membrane of plant cells and provides support for the cell

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74

Cytoskeleton

A filamentous network of proteins that are associated with the processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements in animal and bacteria cells. In plants it is responsible for maintains structures within the cell

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Microfilaments and Microtubules

The main types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton

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76

Flagella

1 long tail to move the cell

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Differentiation

Cells taking on different jobs

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78

Organelle

Small organs

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79

Passive Transport

Does not require energy and moves from high concentration to low

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80

Diffusion

The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

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Facilitated Diffusion

Transport proteins help ions and polar molecule diffuse through the membrane

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Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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83

Active Transport

Requires energy and moves from low concentration to high

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84

Endocytosis

The movement of a large substance INTO a cel by means of a vesicle

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85

Phagocytosis

Moves food; "cell eating"

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86

Pinocytosis

Moves water; "cell drinking"

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87

Exocytosis

The movement of material OUT of a cell by means of a vesicle

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88

Contractile Vacuole

Stores water but can pump it out

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89

Hypotonic Solution

A low solute/high water concentration OUTSIDE of the cell; water moves INTO a cell

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90

Hypertonic Solution

A high solute/low water concentration OUTSIDE of a cell;water moves OUT OF a cell

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91

Isotonic Solution

An equal solute/water concentration both INSIDE and OUTSIDE a cell

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92

Laws Of Thermodynamics

No energy can be created or destroyed, it can only change forms

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93

Catabolic Pathways

Break down molecules

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94

Anabolic Pathways

Build up molecules

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95

C6H12O6+6O2-> 6CO2+ 6H2O+energy

Cell Respiration

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96

Aerobic

Oxygen is present

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97

Anaerobic

Oxygen is NOT present

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98

Glycolysis

Occurs in the cytoplasm for prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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99

The Krebs Cycle & ETC

Occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotes

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100

Electron Transport Chain

Most important part of Cell Respiration and pumps hydrogen ions across the membrane into a tiny space

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