Bio Vocab

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Habitatuation

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Habitatuation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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terriotality

defense of a space against encroachment by individuals

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Acid rain

Precipitation that is the result of air pollution reacting with water molecules in the atmosphere loading to the destruction of forest and lake ecosystems.

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Animalia

organisms in this kingdom are multicellular heterotrophs without cell walls.

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Archaea Bacteria

kingdom that included bacteria that live in extreme environments.

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autotrophs

an organism that can make its own food; producers, (example: plants by photosynthesis)

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Binomial Nomenclature

Naming system for all organisms. This was developed by Carl Linnaeus.

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Bioaccumulation/biomagnification

increase in concentration of pollutants in the tissues of organisms as you move up trophic levels in an ecosystem.

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camouflage

an adaptation that enables a species to blend in with its environment

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carbon cycle

carbon dioxide gets into living tissue by photosynthesis and it returns to the enviorment through cellular respiration + Burning of fossil fuels.

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carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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cell

smallest unit of life

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class

a group of closely related orders

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.

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Classification

The process of grouping organisms based on their physical similarities and DNA.

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climate change

A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere because of pollution.

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Competition

the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

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Consumer

an organism that gets their energy by feeding on other organisms; heterotrophs.

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courtship

behavior used to attract males.

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decomposer

an organism that gets its energy by feeding on dead organic matter.

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deforestation

Destruction of forests

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dichotomous key

series of paired questions used to identify an organism

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domain

the largest and least specific taxon, there are three eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea.

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eubacteria

kingdom that includes bacteria that live everywhere (except in extreme environments)

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eukaryote

A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Eutrophication

excessive nutrients in a lake or ther body of water, due to runoff from the land, which causes excessive growth of algae, and the death of animals from a lack of oxygen.

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exponential growth

J shaped, explosive pattern of population growth.

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external fertilization

process in which eggs are fertilized outside the female's body, Example: fish

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family

a group of closely related genera

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fossil fuels

coal,oil, and natural gas coming from old remains of plants & animals: burning this is a big contribution to climate change.

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fungi

kingdom that included organism when are heterotrophs that have cell walls made of chitin: ex, mold,yeast, and mushrooms

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genus

A group of closely related species

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greenhouse effect

normal warming effect produced when the sun rays are trapped by gases in the earth's atmosphere: without this the earth would be ice everywhere

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habitat destruction

the loss of a natural habitat; the major cause of extinction

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heterotroph

an organism that must get food from its environment; aka consumer: ex. animals

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hibernation

a dormant state of lowered metabolism that is an adaptation for surviving winter.

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imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

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internal fertilization

Process in which eggs are fertilized inside the female's body: ex. humans

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invasive species

plants and animals that are deliberately/ accidentally introduced into an areas. their population explode and have no known natural predators and out-compete native species for resources leading to the decline of resources.

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Kingdom

2nd largest taxonomic , consisting of closely related phyla.

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Limiting Factor

An environmental condition that restricts the size of a population

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Multicellular

made of 2 or more cells

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nitrogen cycle

The transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere

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nitrogen fixation

process of converting nitrogen into air, into a form that plants and animals can use. (Nitrates and Nitrites).

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non-native species

A species that is not naturally found in an ecosystem and does not affect the survival of other species there.

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order

a group of closely related families

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Parasitism

a symbiotic relationship where one organism is harmed but the other is benefiting from it.

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pheremone

A chemical released by animals that influences the behavior of other animals of the same species

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phylum

group of closely related classes

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placenta

an organ in the uterus of a pregnant mammal that nourished the fetus through the umbilical cord

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plantae

kingdom with organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls made of cellulose

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predator

An animal that hunts other animals for food

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prey

an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food

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producer

an organism that makes its own food: autotrophs

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prokaryote

bacterial cells that don't have a nucleus or membrane bound organisms

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seed

a plant structure that contains an embryo and food source surrounded by a protective coat.

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species

smallest taxon, a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offsprings.

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spore

A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating made by bacteria fungi and some plants like fern.

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stewardship

commitment to the responsible management of natural resources and sustainable action to help preserve the enviorment.

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suckling

when a young mammal nurses from its mother

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symbiosis

a close relationship between two species living together.

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taxis

Movement toward or away from a stimulus.

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trial and error learning

behavior in which an animal learns to perform behavior over and over again until success is achieved.

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tropism

growth response of a plant to a stimulus

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Unicellular

Made of a single cell

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waste lagoon

these become problematic when they flood into rivers/drinking water supplies

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Mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit; ex. good bacteria in the human gut

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Organism

A living thing

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Aerobic Respieration

A form of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate ATP

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Diffusion

the simplest form of passive transport

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DNA

the genetic code of life

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Dynamic Equilibrium

particles are evenly distributed and continue to move across the cell membrane/space

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electron microscope

uses a beam of electrons to magnify an object; much more powerful than a compound light microscope

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Eyespot

an organelle that the protist euglena uses to detect light

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Flagella

long, whip-like tails used for movement

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active transport

the movement of particles from low to high concentration (against the concentration gradient); requires ATP/energy

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Adaptation

inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival

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alcoholic fermentation

anaerobic respiration that makes 2 ATP from each glucose molecule, carbon dioxide, and alcohol; carried out by yeast and bacteria

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Anaerobic Respiration

A form of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen and generates less ATP

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ATP

energy-storing molecule of cells; energy is stored in the bonds between the phosphates

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Cell wall

additional layer found outside of the cell membrane in plants, fungi, bacteria, and some protists; offers additional support and protection

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Cell/plasma membrane

thin, flexible structure that provides protection and support to a cell and separates it from the outside environment

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Cellular Respiration

burning glucose to make ATP; 36-38 ATP are formed from each glucose molecule; carried out by all organisms; occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells

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Cilia

short, hair-like projections found in eukaryotes that are used for movement (protists) and that line the respiratory tracts of animals

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compound light microscope

a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an object

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Concentration Gradient

a difference in concentration of a substance across a cell membrane/space

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Contractile Vacuole

specialized vacuole in paramecia that allow them to live in freshwater environments by constantly pumping water out

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Cytoplasm

gel-like material made mostly of water that surrounds the organelles inside a cell

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Glucose

simple sugar made during photosynthesis and burned during cellular respiration

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Homeostasis

maintaining a constant internal environment

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lactic acid fermentation

anaerobic respiration that makes 2 ATP from each glucose molecule and lactic acid which causes muscle soreness/cramps

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Lysosome

a eukaryotic organelle that contains digestive enzymes for breaking down worn out cell parts and engulfed viruses/bacteria

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Mitochondria

organelle that is the site of cellular respiration; sometimes referred to as the "powerhouse" of a cell as it makes ATP (energy)

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Nucleus

organelle that contains the DNA/chromosomes; sometimes referred to as the "command and control center" of a cell

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Organelle

structure inside a cell that performs a certain function

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Osmosis

the diffusion of water; remember "solute sucks"

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Passive Transport

movement of molecules from high to low concentration (down the concentration gradient); does not require ATP/energy

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Phospholipid BiLayer

another name for the cell/plasma membrane which is made up of two layers of phospholipids

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Photosynthesis

process carried out by plants, some protists, and some bacteria in which carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose (food) and oxygen; occurs in the chloroplast of eukaryotic cells

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Protein Synthesis

process of making proteins that includes transcription and translation

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