Kin 1A03 Modules 1-4

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proximal

to trunk (leg), to head (arm), used to describe linear structures

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distal

away from trunk (leg), away from head (arm), used to describe linear structures

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3
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superior

above, toward the head

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4
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inferior

below, away from the head

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cranial

to head, skull

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caudal

away from the head

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medial

to midline

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8
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lateral

away from midline

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9
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posterior

behind

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10
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anterior

in front

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dorsal

back

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ventral

in front

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frontal

forehead

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14
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sagittal plane

vertically through body, separates right and left

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Transverse

superior/ inferior, cross-section

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anatomy

scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure

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physiology

scientific investigation of the processes/ functions of living things

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chemical level

interaction of atoms

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cell level

structural and functional unit of living organisms

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tissue level

group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them

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organ level

two or more tissues functioning together

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system level

group of organs functioning together

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organism level

any living thing

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anatomical position

body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward

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supine

lying face upward

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prone

lying face downward

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cephalic

superior, head

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superficial

direction to surface of body

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deep

direction to inside the body

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facial

face

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cervical

neck

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axillary

armpit

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brachial

arm

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antecubital

front of elbow

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antebrachial

forearm

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36
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carpal

wrist

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palmar, volar

palm

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digital, phalangeal

fingers, toes

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femoral

thigh

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patellar

anterior surface of knee

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crural

leg

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tarsal

ankle

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pedal

foot

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temporal

temple

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orbital, ocular

eye

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otic

ear

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buccal

cheek

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nasal

nose

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oral

mouth

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mental

chin

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sternal

breastbone

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mammary

breast

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umbilical

navel

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coxal

hip

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inguinal

groin

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pollex

thumb

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manual

hand

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pubic

pubis

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dorsum

top of foot, back of hand

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hallux

great toe

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occipital

base of skull

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scapular

shoulder blade

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vertebral

spinal column

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olecranal, cubital

back of elbow

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sacral

between hips

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abdominal

abdomen

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pelvic

pelvis

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thoracic

chest

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lumbar

loin

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gluteal

buttock

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perineal

region of anus and external genitals

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popliteal

hollow behind knee

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sural

calf

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plantar

sole

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calcaneal

heel

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frontal or coronal plane

divides body into anterior and posterior sections

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transverse or cross plane

divides body into superior and inferior sections

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oblique plane

other than at a right angle

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sagittal

right/ left

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midsagittal section

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frontal section

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transverse section

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longitudinal

cut along the length of an organ

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cross/ transverse

cut at right angle to length of the organ

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oblique

cut at any but a right angle

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diaphragm

divides body cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

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abdominal cavity

contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys

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pelvic cavity

contains urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, reproductive organs

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pericardium

refers to heart

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pleura

refers to lungs and thoracic cavity

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peritoneum

refers to abdominopelvic cavity

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parietal pleura

outer wall of pleura

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visceral pleura

inner wall of pleura

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mediastunum

contains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs

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homeostasis

The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body

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body temperature increases

sweating, blood volume decreases, drop in blood pressure, increases heart rate, increases blood pressure

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set point for body temperature

37.0

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Feedback system

receptor, control center, effector

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Receptor

monitors the value of some variable

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Control center

establishes the set point

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