Anatomy Exam 1 Review

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What is the function of sesamoid bones?

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What is the function of sesamoid bones?

They change the angle of the tendon so the associated muscle can produce a more effective force for movement.

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Where is smooth muscle located?

In the walls of hollow organs (ex: bladder, stomach) and various tubes in circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems.

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What is the fiber arrangement in fusiform muscle?

Muscle fascicles run close to parallel with the muscle's long axis.

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Coronal/Frontal Plane

Divides body into front and back portions

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Sagittal Plane

Divides body into right and left portions

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Posterior

Closer to the back of the body than the front of the body

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Medial

Toward the midline of the body

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Deep

Farther away from the surface of the body

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Extension

Extending the joint

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Abduction

Moving away from the body's midline

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Nervous System

Body's electrical wiring made up of brain, spinal cord, and nerves

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What do ligaments connect?

Bone to bone

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What percentage of total body weight is bone?

15-20%

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What is Wolff's Law?

Bones respond to weight-bearing activities and muscle contractions

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Why are growth plates vulnerable to injury?

They are weaker areas of the bone.

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What are the symptoms of a growth plate injury?

Persistent pain and tenderness, change in shape, warmth and/or swelling at the end of the bone, changes in mechanics of the limb, inability to move or bear weight due to pain.

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What are cartilaginous joints?

Joints where the bones are joined directly by cartilage, allowing more movement than fibrous joints.

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What are the types of bone fractures?

Transverse, oblique, nondisplaced, displaced, open/compound, and spiral.

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What can shin splints escalate to if left untreated?

Stress fractures.

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What is the treatment for shin splints?

Rest, ice, no high impact exercises, preventative exercises, wear supportive shoes, take anti-inflammatories.

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What are the causes of stress fractures?

Unaddressed shin splints, overuse, sudden change in activity, improper mechanics/misalignment.

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What is the treatment for a 5th metatarsal fracture?

Rest, little to no weight bearing, often a boot, may need crutches, sometimes surgery depending on the type and severity of the fracture.

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What is smooth muscle?

Muscle found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes.

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What is the function of skeletal muscle?

Joint movement, joint stability, shock absorption, production of body heat, and posture.

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What is the control of skeletal muscle?

Voluntary.

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What are the characteristics of fusiform muscle fibers?

Longer fibers that run along the length of the muscle.

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What is the disadvantage of fusiform muscle fibers?

Weak force production.

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What is the advantage of penniform muscle fibers?

Greater force production.

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What is the proximal attachment of a muscle?

The origin or beginning of the muscle, attaches closer to the midline.

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Types of Muscle Contraction

Isometric, Concentric, Eccentric

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Isometric Contraction

Equal-length contraction with no visible joint movement

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Roles of Muscles in Movement

Agonist: muscle or muscles whose contraction produces the desired joint movement, initiator

Antagonist: muscle or muscles with the action opposite to that of the agonist, follower

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Transverse/Horizontal Plane

Divides body into upper and lower portions

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Superior

Closer to the top of the head than another structure

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Inferior

Closer to the feet than another structure

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Anterior

Closer to the front of the body than the back of the body

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Flexion

Bending/flexing the joint

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Plantarflexion

Pointing your foot

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What are osteoblasts?

Cells that build up bone

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Where are sesamoid bones found?

They are found in the hands, knees, and feet.

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What is the shaft of a bone?

The long, cylindrical portion of a bone.

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How many growth plates does each long bone have?

At least two, one at each end.

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When do growth plates become mature bone?

Sometime during adolescence.

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What are shin splints?

Tearing away of the periosteum or bone covering.

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Distal attachment-insertion

End of the muscle, attaches further from the midline

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Lateral

Away from the midline of the body

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Superficial

Closer to the surface of the body

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Proximal

Closer to the root of the body

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Distal

Farther away from the root of the body

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Adduction

Moving toward the body's midline

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Dorsiflexion

Flexing your foot

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Internal Rotation

Rotating toward the midline

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External rotation

Rotating away from the midline

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Pronation

Turning the palm backward

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Supination

Turning the palm forward

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Respiratory System

System responsible for respiration

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Endocrine System

Series of glands that produce and secrete hormones

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Digestive System

System responsible for digestion

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Reproductive System

System responsible for reproduction

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Skeletal System

System responsible for providing support and protection

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Muscular System

System responsible for movement

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Lymphatic System

System responsible for removing toxins and waste

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Circulatory System

System responsible for transporting blood and nutrients

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What is the skeletal system composed of?

Bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints

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What are the primary tissues of the body?

Muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective

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What is the function of muscle tissue?

Ability to contract

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What is the function of nervous tissue?

Conduct electricity

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What is the function of epithelial tissue?

Cover and line surfaces, form glands

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What is the function of connective tissue?

Bind, support, insulate, protect structures

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What is the structure of ligaments?

Short bands of tough, flexible fibrous connective tissue

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What is the function of ligaments?

Stabilize the joint

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What do tendons connect?

Bone to muscle

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How are tendons different from ligaments?

More flexibility, absorb impact as muscles spring into action

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What are the functions of bone?

Support, shape, protect, movement, blood cell production, mineral storage

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What is bone remodeling?

Continuous cycle of bone being built, broken down, and rebuilt

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What are osteoclasts?

Cells that break down bone

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What is bone mainly made of?

Collagen

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What are the types of bone?

Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid

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What are sesamoid bones?

Small, round bones that form within a tendon and help protect tendons from excessive wear.

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What is the head of a bone?

The rounded end of a bone.

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What is marrow?

The soft, spongy tissue found inside the shaft of long bones that produces blood cells.

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What is periosteum?

The tough, fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of bones.

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What is articular cartilage?

The smooth, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint, allowing them to glide smoothly over each other.

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What is a growth plate?

The area of tissue at the end of long bones in children and teens that determines the future length and shape of mature bone.

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What are fibrous joints?

Joints where articulating bones are joined directly with fibrous tissue, allowing little to no movement.

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What are synovial joints?

Joints where the bones are not directly joined and are separated by a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid.

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What are the types of synovial joints?

Hinge, saddle, planar, condyloid, and ball and socket joints.

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What are the symptoms of a bone fracture?

Pain, bruising, swelling, tenderness, and bending or twisting of the affected area.

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What is the periosteum?

Dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping bones.

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What are the causes of shin splints?

Overuse, unsupportive shoes, lots of jumping, hard floors, or change in floor surface, not warming up properly.

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What are the symptoms of shin splints?

Tenderness/dull pain in the general area, pain that diminishes during rest, pain that intensifies during normal activity, swelling.

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What are stress fractures?

Small crack or severe bruising of the bone.

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What are the symptoms of stress fractures?

Pain that diminishes during rest, pain that intensifies during normal activity, localized tenderness, swelling/bruising.

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What is the rare injury known as 'the dreaded black line'?

Shin splints that escalate to stress reactions and then stress fractures.

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What is a 5th metatarsal fracture?

One of the most common fractures experienced by dancers, caused by rolling/twisting the ankle or landing incorrectly.

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What are the symptoms of a 5th metatarsal fracture?

Swelling, bruising, difficulty walking or inability to walk, tenderness in the area, sharp pain.

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What is a Lisfranc injury?

An injury common in professions with foot articulation or twisting.

Strain, fracture, or dislocation between the tarsals and metatarsals.

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What are the causes of a Lisfranc injury?

Indirect causes such as foot articulation or twisting.

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What are the symptoms of a Lisfranc injury?

Swelling, pain throughout the midfoot, inability to bear weight, bruising of the arch, abnormal widening of the foot.

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How is a Lisfranc injury treated?

Immobilization, RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation), anti-inflammatories, physical therapy, at least six weeks rest, and in some cases, surgery.

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