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What is the function of sesamoid bones?
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They change the angle of the tendon so the associated muscle can produce a more effective force for movement.
Where is smooth muscle located?
In the walls of hollow organs (ex: bladder, stomach) and various tubes in circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems.
What is the fiber arrangement in fusiform muscle?
Muscle fascicles run close to parallel with the muscle's long axis.
Divides body into front and back portions
Divides body into right and left portions
Closer to the back of the body than the front of the body
Toward the midline of the body
Farther away from the surface of the body
Extending the joint
Moving away from the body's midline
Body's electrical wiring made up of brain, spinal cord, and nerves
What do ligaments connect?
Bone to bone
What percentage of total body weight is bone?
What is Wolff's Law?
Bones respond to weight-bearing activities and muscle contractions
Why are growth plates vulnerable to injury?
They are weaker areas of the bone.
What are the symptoms of a growth plate injury?
Persistent pain and tenderness, change in shape, warmth and/or swelling at the end of the bone, changes in mechanics of the limb, inability to move or bear weight due to pain.
What are cartilaginous joints?
Joints where the bones are joined directly by cartilage, allowing more movement than fibrous joints.
What are the types of bone fractures?
Transverse, oblique, nondisplaced, displaced, open/compound, and spiral.
What can shin splints escalate to if left untreated?
What is the treatment for shin splints?
Rest, ice, no high impact exercises, preventative exercises, wear supportive shoes, take anti-inflammatories.
What are the causes of stress fractures?
Unaddressed shin splints, overuse, sudden change in activity, improper mechanics/misalignment.
What is the treatment for a 5th metatarsal fracture?
Rest, little to no weight bearing, often a boot, may need crutches, sometimes surgery depending on the type and severity of the fracture.
What is smooth muscle?
Muscle found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes.
What is the function of skeletal muscle?
Joint movement, joint stability, shock absorption, production of body heat, and posture.
What is the control of skeletal muscle?
What are the characteristics of fusiform muscle fibers?
Longer fibers that run along the length of the muscle.
What is the disadvantage of fusiform muscle fibers?
Weak force production.
What is the advantage of penniform muscle fibers?
Greater force production.
What is the proximal attachment of a muscle?
The origin or beginning of the muscle, attaches closer to the midline.
Types of Muscle Contraction
Isometric, Concentric, Eccentric
Equal-length contraction with no visible joint movement
Roles of Muscles in Movement
Agonist: muscle or muscles whose contraction produces the desired joint movement, initiator
Antagonist: muscle or muscles with the action opposite to that of the agonist, follower
Divides body into upper and lower portions
Closer to the top of the head than another structure
Closer to the feet than another structure
Closer to the front of the body than the back of the body
Bending/flexing the joint
Pointing your foot
What are osteoblasts?
Cells that build up bone
Where are sesamoid bones found?
They are found in the hands, knees, and feet.
What is the shaft of a bone?
The long, cylindrical portion of a bone.
How many growth plates does each long bone have?
At least two, one at each end.
When do growth plates become mature bone?
Sometime during adolescence.
What are shin splints?
Tearing away of the periosteum or bone covering.
End of the muscle, attaches further from the midline
Away from the midline of the body
Closer to the surface of the body
Closer to the root of the body
Farther away from the root of the body
Moving toward the body's midline
Flexing your foot
Rotating toward the midline
Rotating away from the midline
Turning the palm backward
Turning the palm forward
System responsible for respiration
Series of glands that produce and secrete hormones
System responsible for digestion
System responsible for reproduction
System responsible for providing support and protection
System responsible for movement
System responsible for removing toxins and waste
System responsible for transporting blood and nutrients
What is the skeletal system composed of?
Bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints
What are the primary tissues of the body?
Muscle, nervous, epithelial, connective
What is the function of muscle tissue?
Ability to contract
What is the function of nervous tissue?
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Cover and line surfaces, form glands
What is the function of connective tissue?
Bind, support, insulate, protect structures
What is the structure of ligaments?
Short bands of tough, flexible fibrous connective tissue
What is the function of ligaments?
Stabilize the joint
What do tendons connect?
Bone to muscle
How are tendons different from ligaments?
More flexibility, absorb impact as muscles spring into action
What are the functions of bone?
Support, shape, protect, movement, blood cell production, mineral storage
What is bone remodeling?
Continuous cycle of bone being built, broken down, and rebuilt
What are osteoclasts?
Cells that break down bone
What is bone mainly made of?
What are the types of bone?
Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
What are sesamoid bones?
Small, round bones that form within a tendon and help protect tendons from excessive wear.
What is the head of a bone?
The rounded end of a bone.
What is marrow?
The soft, spongy tissue found inside the shaft of long bones that produces blood cells.
What is periosteum?
The tough, fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of bones.
What is articular cartilage?
The smooth, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint, allowing them to glide smoothly over each other.
What is a growth plate?
The area of tissue at the end of long bones in children and teens that determines the future length and shape of mature bone.