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Ottoman Empire

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Ottoman Empire

A Turkic Group, pushed to Anatolia. Used gunpowder and gunpowder cannons to become the most powerful empire of Eastern Europe and Middle East conquering major cities.

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Istanbul

Capital of the Byzantine Empire conquered in 1453 and was renamed to Istanbul from Constantinople by the Ottomans.

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Janissaries

Captured Balkan slave boys converted to Islam and educated from a young age to do the dangerous job of handling gunpowder. Eventually rose to elite status in the army and then politics.

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Timars

Ottomans elite class. Served in the Ottoman military and were granted recently conquered land for their service. In constant competition with Janissaries for leadership of Ottoman military.

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Millet System

People of different religions were allowed to govern themselves if they paid a tax to the ottomans. Led to hundreds of years of religious peace.

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Safavid Empire

Gunpowder empire in Persia. Use Shia Islam to distinguish themselves from Ottoman rivals.

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Mughal Empire

Gunpowder Empire in India. Known for fine artillery pieces. Unable to conquer the Deccan Plateau (South India). Made rich at first by arrival of Europeans but then start to decline.

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Songhai Empire

A gunpowder empire in Western Africa. Controlled West Africans Saharan trade routes. Constant battles with Moroccans in North Africa. Became obsolete by the end of the period.

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Miniature Paintings

Small portraits created to celebrate the life of royal court.

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Taj Mahal

A beautiful tomb built by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan to honor his wife. Best example of Mughal architecture. Uses Islamic domes, horseshoe arches, and minarets.

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Suleyman's Mosque

A great example of Ottoman architecture.

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Zamindar System

Wealthy landowners were used to collect and pay taxes to leaders in far away cities/capitals. The system was used in the Mughal and Safavid Empires.

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Sufi Islam

A branch of Islam that is more focused on the emotional/personal connection and is less strict. Fit in well with Turkish pastoral traditions and allowed for the easier combining of different faiths. Turks were able to sing, dance, and drink alcohol while still being Muslim.

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Ottoman-Safavid Rivalry

The main dispute is over who should be the Caliph. Ottomans are Sunnis and the Safavids are Shias. The empires battled for control over the Islamic World and used religious divide between Sunni and Shia to raise the passions of their people and to create large armies.

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Iltizam System

Ottomans hired "tax farmers", these were rich people who bid for the opportunity to collect taxes. Ottomans gave a price that was due and the Iltizam could force people to pay whatever taxes they deemed necessary and they paid the agreed amount then kept the rest for themselves.

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Tax Farming

To generate money the Ottomans let rich people bid for the opportunity to collect taxes. These people then collected the taxes and paid the agreed amount and kept the rest for themselves.

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Sunni-Shia Conflict

Disagreement over the rightful leader of Islam after the death of Muhammad. Sunnis believed that the most qualified ruler should be the Caliph. Shais believe that only a direct descendant of Mohammed should be the Caliph.

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Jizya Tax

A tax on non-muslims

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Sikhism

Now worlds 5th largest religion. Starts in Mughal Empire. Blend of Islam and Hinduism. No caste system. One god and equality of believers. Has reincarnation, karma, and Dharma.

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Suleyman the Magnificent

Greatest of all Ottoman rulers. Expanded the empire, cut down on corruptions, made a longstanding law code, and claimed to be the true Caliph of Islam. Referred to himself as the "shadow of God on Earth".

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Nur Jahan

Most powerful female leader of an Islamic Empire. Never officially the Shah. Husband is weal drug addict and empire recognizes that she is the true emperor.

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Akbar the Great

A Mughal leader that is successful at making peace between Muslims and Hindus. Outlaws the Jizya tax and marries a Hindu princess. He holds celebrations for both Muslim and Hindu holidays at his palace.

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Shah Abbas

Safavid Shah Abbas unites people under Shia Islam to distinguish himself from Ottoman Rivals. Claims he is a direct descendent of Mohammed's family and therefore the only legitimate Caliph of the Islamic world. He must fight to gain his God given authority.

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Religious Syncretism

The blending of beliefs/religious into a new singular religious system.

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Caravel

First Euro shops with Lateen sails, was made by Portuguese

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Fluyt

Was made by the dutch designed to hold as much asian cargo as possible

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Knowledge of winds and currents

Increased knowledge of winds and currents, knew that the winds shift near the equator

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Prince Henry Navigation School

A navigation school named after Prince Henry the navigator and Portuguese became European leaders in gathering ocean navigation knowledge due to state sponsorship.

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State Sponsorship

Giving people/businesses money and goods to go on expeditions or create something

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Asante Empire

Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.

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Reconquista

Christian kings ending Muslim control of Spain

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Omani Trade Empire

Arab Indian ocean trading empire. Originally disrupted by the arrival of the Portuguese. Continue to have a strong presence after the Portuguese fade,

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Javanese Trade Empire

A Hindu-Buddhist trade empire. Participates and thrives off of the southernization process even as Europeans begin to interfere with their trade.

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Atlantic system

The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean.

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Small pox

Disease spread by Europeans in the Americas. Led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans in North and South America

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measles

A virus brought to America by Europeans and killed many Native Americans.

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influenza

A virus brought to America by Europeans and killed many Native Americans.

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malaria

A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood. Brought to America by Europeans who had mosquitoes on their boats.

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potatoes

A crop found in America that became a staple food in Afro-Eurasia.

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maize

A crop found in America that became a staple food in Afro-Eurasia. Also known as corn

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cassava

A crop found in America that became a staple food in Afro-Eurasia. Known as a sweet potato.

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tobacco

A cash crop from the Americas that Europeans grew.

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rice

A food/crop brought by slaves from Africa to the Americas.

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okra

A food/crop brought by slaves from Africa to the Americas.

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Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and Europe following the colonization of the Americas.

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Cash crops

a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.

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deforestation

The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.

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soil depletion

The process by which soil gradually becomes so lacking or depleted in nutrients that it can no longer grow a crop

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Vodun(voodoo)

or voodoo is a New World syncretic(blending of religions) faith that combines the animist faiths of West Africa with Christianity

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Virgin of Guadalupe

The blending of Catholicism and the Aztec Mother Goddess (Mexico) to create a version of the Blessed Virgin Mary that was more relatable to the people in Mexico.

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Prince Henry

Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration

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Vasco Da Gama

First to sail from Europe to India. Immediately declares war on Muslim traders of the region and starts a bloody rivalry

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Christopher Columbus

He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India. Landed in the Bahamas and was sailing for Spain.

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Spanish Conquistadors

Spanish adventure and explorer; their mission was Gold, God, Glory in the Americas.

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Imperial Conquest

An empire that conquers an area outside of its borders and sets up colonies and leads to significant change for both attackers and the attacked.

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New Spain

The name of the Spanish territory/Colonies in the Americas

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Sugar

A cash crop grown in central and south America.

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Cash Crop

A crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.

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Plantation System

A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of labor and the environment. This system focused on the production of large amounts of cash crops and utilized slave labor.

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Brazil

The modern day country that the Portuguese ran into while searching for a quicker route to India.

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Coerced Labor

A system of labor where workers are forced to do work and are paid nothing or almost nothing.

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Spanish use of Mita

The Mita was a social-economic organizing system based on coerced labor that e existed in the Inca empire and the Spanish used it for profits.

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Encomienda

The enslaving of Native Americans by the Spanish to force them to work a plot of land.

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Hacienda

A type of plantation made by Spanish colonists in Central and South America. Native American slaves lived on these plantations.

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Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Millions of Africans were taken as slaves from Africa and brought across the Atlantic to be sold as slaves to plantation owners in North and South America.

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Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America, the West Indies, and South America. Was a very horrible journey that many slaves died on.

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Domestic Slavery

Mainly young female slaves were sent to live and work in houses across Africa, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. Continued throughout Africa even with the rise of the Slave trade.

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Chattel Slavery

Humans were treated like property and the slavery is generational.

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Spanish Silver

Silver mined from South America with Native American Slaves. Became a widely used and accepted currency around the world.

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Indentured Seritude

People would have their passage to the New World paid for by someone else, but they had to work for the family/person that paid for their voyage for 7 years.

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Landowning Gentry

Elites who owned land in Europe and had more legal privileges in society.

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New Elites

People who came to the Americas and became rich off the many new opportunities.

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Casta System

An ethnicity based social hierarchy in New Spain

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Peninsulares

People born in Europe. They were at the top of the Casta System.

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Creoles

Full blood Europeans born in Americas. #2 on the Casta System

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Mestizo

Mix of European and native Americans. #3 on the Casta System.

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Mulattos

Mix of European and African. #4 on the Casta System

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Native Americans

#5 on Casta System, with only African slaves ranked below them.

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British North America

Consisted of the 13 colonies. British people brought women with them to the New World, which meant there was very little interracial marrying between the British and the native Americans.

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Pueblo Revolt

One of the largest revolts in the New World. A medicine man believed ancestor spirts told him to revolt. 400 Spaniards died. 2000 pueblos fled to modern day Mexico and they burned churches and "reversed baptized" themselves to rid themselves of Christianity.

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Metacom's War

Three Wampanoag's were charged with a murder without trial. Wampanoag's began to raid farm houses and kill settlers. Led to a war where both sides where wiping out and destroying entire villages.

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Stono Rebellion

Largest revolt in North American colonial history. 100 slaves raided a supply store in Couth Carolina and began to march to Florida with the gathered weapons where slavery was outlawed. Few made it to freedom. 25 English colonists died and 50 Africans lost their lives.

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Maroon Societies

Communities that were free societies formed by escaped slaves in the Caribbean, Latin American. and the United States.

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Hernan Cortes

Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.

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Metacom

Aka King Philip, Native American ruler, who in 1675 led attacks on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts. during a war known as Metacam's War or King Philips War.

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Moctezuma

Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

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Nanny of the Maroons

A slave in Jamaica that escaped and led armed revolts. The British unable to capture her, granted her and her followers a piece of land to live on as a free maroon society.

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Swahili City-States

City States along the East Coast of Africa and where the most wealthy and most connected to the outside world.

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Omani Empire

Took control of the Swahili region from the Portuguese by the end of the period (1750)

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Portuguese Trading Posts

Posts built by the Portuguese along the African coast and along the coasts in the Indian Ocean as a place to trade for goods with local merchants.

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Increases in Population

Large increases in population in Europe due to the Columbian Exchange bringing many new foods to Europe, caused Europeans to have better diets.

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Gender Imbalance

A gender imbalance was caused in Africa because more men than women were taken as slaves in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.

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African Identity

There was no African Identity during this time period (1450 - 1750). African Identity is a more modern invention.

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Kingdom of Kongo

Was in the basin of the Congo river; conglomeration of several village alliances; it participated actively in trade networks; most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms; ruled 14th-17th century until undermined by Portuguese slave traders.

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Kingdom of Ndongo

West African kingdom that between 1623 and 1663 experiences some success in resisting Portugal. Led by the powerful Queen Njinga. By the end of the seventeenth century, the kingdom succumbs and becomes the Portuguese colony of Angola.

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Dutch Trading Posts

Trading posts set up by the Dutch along the coast of African and along the coasts of the Indian Ocean to trade for goods with local merchants.

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Golden Stool

The cultural belief that the Golden Stool was sent from Heaven by the ancestors and whoever sat on it had something like a "divine right" to rule. Osei Tutu used this religious symbol to legitimize his rule.

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Gold Coast

Region of the Atlantic coast of West Africa occupied by modern Ghana; named for its gold exports to Europe from the 1470s onward.

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King Afonso

King of the Congo. He wrote a letter to the king of Portugal claiming the slave trade was corrupting the country and attempted to stop the practice. He used a syncretic form of Christianity to gain legitimacy and power. Made Christianity the official religion of the Kongo Empire.

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Queen Njinga

The leader of the Kingdom of Ndongo and had a powerful army. Helped the Dutch by supplying them with slaves and returned the Dutch helped to remove the Portuguese from the region. She felt double crossed by the Dutch, reached out to the pope, changed her name to Donna Ana and welcomed Portuguese teachers back into her kingdom. Ruled into her 80s.

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