AP Psychology semester 1 units 5-7 studyyy

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176 Terms
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learning

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

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neutral stimulus (NS)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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unconditioned response (UR)

in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response (UR)

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conditioned response (CR)

in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)

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acquisition

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus; for example, an animal that has learned a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone (also called second-order conditioning)

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extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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discrimination

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

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operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking

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reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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discriminative stimulus

in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement)

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positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers; a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

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negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (note: negative reinforcement is not punishment)

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primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer

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reinforcement schedule

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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fixed-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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fixed-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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variable-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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punishment

an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows

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respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment; for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution

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intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

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problem-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly--by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

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emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

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learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

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external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate

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internal locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

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self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

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observational learning

learning by observing others; also called social learning

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modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

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prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior

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habituation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

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stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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cognitive learning

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language

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developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

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zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features

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habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 years to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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egocentrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states--about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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imprinting

the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

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aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females

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role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

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adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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identity

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

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intimacy

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two X chromosomes while males have one; an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child

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Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

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testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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primary sex characteristics

the body structure (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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menarche

the first menstrual period

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AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); AIDS depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections

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