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-not spontaneous -anabolic -endergonic/endothermic -supplying lots of activation energy -products have more energy than reactants
-spontaneous -catabolic -exergonic/exothermic -little activation energy required -reactants have more energy than products
reactants will react
reactants will react once brought close together
what does ATP stand for?
How is energy stored in ATP?
electrostatic repulsion in the phosphate bonds
How much △G in the break down of ATP into ADP + iP
How do you increase the rate of reaction outside the body?
How do you increase the rate of reaction inside the body?
enzymes: lower activation energy
ribozymes: RNA molecules acting as catalysts
How do enzymes work?
Lower activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction by causing a temporary change to the internal environment
small molecules permanently attached to inside of the enzyme
inorganic (ions) that bind to enzyme temporarily and help enzyme function
Organic molecules (not proteins) that help enzyme function
Conditions important for enzymes
Purpose of enzyme inhibitors?
regulate in body to conserve energy
Inhibitor competes for and binds to active site
inhibitor binds to allosteric site which changes the shape of the active site
When does irreversible inhibition occur?
treatment for mental health illness
a typ elf allosteric regulation where all parts of enzymes receive info from inhibitor or activator
activator in cooperactivity
binds and opens all active sites
inhibitor in cooperactivity
makes all active sites inactive
products act as the inhibitor
product binds to slowest enzyme which brings the reactions to a halt
respiration that requires O2 to receive the de-energized electron
respiration where inorganic compounds receive the reenergized electrons (like CO2 and SO2)
process by which organic compound receives the electron
organic compounds (hydrocarbons) broken down for energy
Where does anaerobic respiration happen?
in muscles when working out and in the gut (bacteria)
Principle of redox
electrons are constantly being passed on
receives electrons (neg. potential energy)
loses electrons (pos. potential energy)
Two ways ATP are synthesized
types of direct ATP synthesis where phosphate from high energy compound is combined with ADP to make ATP
type of direct ATP synthesis where glucose is broken down
type of indirect ATP synthesis where ATP is produced by chemiosmosis (diffusion of ions)
What does NAD+ stand for?
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
What is NAD+?
coenzyme that receives electron
What is NADH?
energy intermediate that carries electron
What is another name for Glycolysis?
In Glycolysis, what does Glucose (6C) become?
With the breakdown of ATP into ADP + iP by Hexokinase, Glucose 6 Phosphate is formed
In Glycolysis, what does Glucose 6 Phosphate become?
The enzyme Phosphoglucoisomerase forms Fructose 6 Phosphate
In Glycolysis, what does Fructose 6 Phosphate become?
With the breakdown of ATP into ADP + iP by Phosphofructokinase, Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate is formed
In Glycolysis, what does Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate become?
The enzyme Aldolase forms both Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate (3C) and Dihydroxy Acetone Phosphate (3C)
In Glycolysis, what does Dihydroxy Acetone Phosphate (3C) become?
The enzyme Triose Phosphate Isomerase forms Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
In Glycolysis, what does TWO Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate become?
With the breakdown of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Glyceraldehde 3 Phosphate Dehydrogenase and the addition of iP, 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate is formed
In Glycolysis, what does TWO 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate become?
With the building of ADP + iP into ATP by Phosphoglycerate Kinase, 3 Phosphoglycerate is formed
In Glycolysis, what does TWO 3 Phosphoglycerate become?
The enzyme Phosphoglyceromutase forms 2 Phosphoglycerate
In Glycolysis, what does TWO 2 Phosphoglycerate become?
The enzyme Enolase forms Phosphoenol Pyruvate and a water leaves
In Glycolysis, what does TWO Phosphoenol Pyruvate become?
With the building of ADP + iP into ATP by Pyruvate Kinase, Pyruvate is formed
What is put into Glycolysis?
Glucose 2 ADP 2 iP 2 NAD^+
What is the net products of glycolysis?
2 ATP 2 Pyruvates 2 NADH 2 H2O 2 H^+
Which steps of glycolysis are energy investment?
Which steps of glycolysis are the cleavage/priming phase?
Which steps of glycolysis are the energy liberation phase?
When is the first time oxidative decarboxylation happens?
In Pyruvate Oxidation
Losing carbon in the form of CO2
In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme removes CO2?
In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme forms acetyl coA?
In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme forms NADH?
What starts in pyruvate oxidation?
2 Pyruvate (3C)
What is the product in pyruvate oxidation?
2 NADH 2 Acetyl coA Co2
What are the other names for the Kreb Cycle?
-Citric Acid Cycle -Tri Carboxylic Acid Cycle
In Krebs cycle, what does Oxaloacetate (4C) become?
With the breakdown of acetyl coA into coASH by Citrate Synthatase, Citrate (6C) is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Citrate (6C) become?
With the removal of H2O then addition of H2O by Aconitase, Isocitrate is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Isocitrate become?
With the removal of CO2 and the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, Diketoglutarate is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Diketoglutarate become?
With the addition of coASH, removal of CO2, and the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Alpha Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase, Succinyl coA is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Succinyl coA become?
With the removal of coASH, conversion of GDP + iP into GTP which then converts ADP + iP into ATP all by Succinyl coA Synthetase, Succinate (4C) is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Succinate (4C) become?
With the build up of FAD + 2e + 2H^+ into FADH2 by Succinate Dehydrogenase, Fumarate (4C) is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Fumarate (4C) become?
With the addition of H2O by Fumarase, Malate is formed
In Krebs cycle, what does Malate become?
With the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Malate Dehygrogense, Oxaloacetate (4C) is formed
What is the priming phase in Krebs cycle?
Oxaloacetate to Isocitrate
What is the oxidative phase in Krebs cycle?
Isocitrate to Succinate
What is the regeneration phase in Krebs cycle?
Succinate to Oxaloacetate
Total yield from Krebs cycle?
2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2
Why is it Krebs "Cycle"?
The starting compound is regenerated
When does the complete glucose break down happen?
In Krebs cycle when all organic carbon becomes inorganic carbon (CO2)
How many ATP does Glycolysis produce?
2 ATP 5 ATP (from 2 NADH) TOTAL 7 ATP
How many ATP does Pyruvate Oxidation produce?
3 ATP (from 2 NADH, 2 used to get inside)
How many ATP does Krebs cycle produce?
2 ATP 15 ATP (from 6 NADH) 3 ATP (from 2 NADH2)
How many ATP does 1 glucose produce?
What are the two functions of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to provide energy to make a proton gradient in inter membrane space
ATP synthase enzyme: H^+ flow by chemiosmosis through ATP synthase to provide energy for iP + ADP into ATP
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
inner mitochondrial membrane
What is the first protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?
NADH dehydrogenase = proton PUMP
What is the second protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?
Succinate reductase = NOT proton PUMP