Cell 1010 Test 3

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△G= +

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△G= +

-not spontaneous -anabolic -endergonic/endothermic -supplying lots of activation energy -products have more energy than reactants

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△G= -

-spontaneous -catabolic -exergonic/exothermic -little activation energy required -reactants have more energy than products

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Spontaneous

reactants will react

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instantaneous

reactants will react once brought close together

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what does ATP stand for?

adenosine triphosphate

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How is energy stored in ATP?

electrostatic repulsion in the phosphate bonds

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How much △G in the break down of ATP into ADP + iP

-7.3 kcal

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How do you increase the rate of reaction outside the body?

Apply heat

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How do you increase the rate of reaction inside the body?

  1. enzymes: lower activation energy

  2. ribozymes: RNA molecules acting as catalysts

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How do enzymes work?

Lower activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction by causing a temporary change to the internal environment

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Prosthetic Groups

small molecules permanently attached to inside of the enzyme

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Cofactor

inorganic (ions) that bind to enzyme temporarily and help enzyme function

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Coenzyme

Organic molecules (not proteins) that help enzyme function

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Conditions important for enzymes

  1. Optimal temperature

  2. Optimal pH

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Purpose of enzyme inhibitors?

regulate in body to conserve energy

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Competitive inhibitors

Inhibitor competes for and binds to active site

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Allosteric

inhibitor binds to allosteric site which changes the shape of the active site

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When does irreversible inhibition occur?

treatment for mental health illness

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Cooperactivity

a typ elf allosteric regulation where all parts of enzymes receive info from inhibitor or activator

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activator in cooperactivity

binds and opens all active sites

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inhibitor in cooperactivity

makes all active sites inactive

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Feedback inhibition

products act as the inhibitor

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rate-limiting step

product binds to slowest enzyme which brings the reactions to a halt

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aerobic respiration

respiration that requires O2 to receive the de-energized electron

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anaerobic respiration

respiration where inorganic compounds receive the reenergized electrons (like CO2 and SO2)

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fermentation

process by which organic compound receives the electron

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Respiration

organic compounds (hydrocarbons) broken down for energy

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Where does anaerobic respiration happen?

in muscles when working out and in the gut (bacteria)

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Principle of redox

electrons are constantly being passed on

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reduced

receives electrons (neg. potential energy)

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oxidized

loses electrons (pos. potential energy)

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Two ways ATP are synthesized

  1. Direct

  2. Indirect

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Substrate-level phosphorylation

types of direct ATP synthesis where phosphate from high energy compound is combined with ADP to make ATP

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Glycolysis

type of direct ATP synthesis where glucose is broken down

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oxidative phosphorylation

type of indirect ATP synthesis where ATP is produced by chemiosmosis (diffusion of ions)

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What does NAD+ stand for?

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

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What is NAD+?

coenzyme that receives electron

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What is NADH?

energy intermediate that carries electron

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What is another name for Glycolysis?

Carbohydrate Catabolism

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In Glycolysis, what does Glucose (6C) become?

With the breakdown of ATP into ADP + iP by Hexokinase, Glucose 6 Phosphate is formed

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In Glycolysis, what does Glucose 6 Phosphate become?

The enzyme Phosphoglucoisomerase forms Fructose 6 Phosphate

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In Glycolysis, what does Fructose 6 Phosphate become?

With the breakdown of ATP into ADP + iP by Phosphofructokinase, Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate is formed

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In Glycolysis, what does Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate become?

The enzyme Aldolase forms both Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate (3C) and Dihydroxy Acetone Phosphate (3C)

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In Glycolysis, what does Dihydroxy Acetone Phosphate (3C) become?

The enzyme Triose Phosphate Isomerase forms Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate

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In Glycolysis, what does TWO Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate become?

With the breakdown of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Glyceraldehde 3 Phosphate Dehydrogenase and the addition of iP, 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate is formed

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In Glycolysis, what does TWO 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate become?

With the building of ADP + iP into ATP by Phosphoglycerate Kinase, 3 Phosphoglycerate is formed

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In Glycolysis, what does TWO 3 Phosphoglycerate become?

The enzyme Phosphoglyceromutase forms 2 Phosphoglycerate

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In Glycolysis, what does TWO 2 Phosphoglycerate become?

The enzyme Enolase forms Phosphoenol Pyruvate and a water leaves

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In Glycolysis, what does TWO Phosphoenol Pyruvate become?

With the building of ADP + iP into ATP by Pyruvate Kinase, Pyruvate is formed

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What is put into Glycolysis?

Glucose 2 ADP 2 iP 2 NAD^+

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What is the net products of glycolysis?

2 ATP 2 Pyruvates 2 NADH 2 H2O 2 H^+

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Which steps of glycolysis are energy investment?

Steps 1-3

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Which steps of glycolysis are the cleavage/priming phase?

Steps 4-5

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Which steps of glycolysis are the energy liberation phase?

Steps 6-10

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When is the first time oxidative decarboxylation happens?

In Pyruvate Oxidation

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Oxidative Decarboxylation

Losing carbon in the form of CO2

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In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme removes CO2?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

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In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme forms acetyl coA?

Dihydolipyl transacetylase

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In pyruvate oxidation, which enzyme forms NADH?

Dihydrolipyl dehydrogenase

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What starts in pyruvate oxidation?

2 Pyruvate (3C)

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What is the product in pyruvate oxidation?

2 NADH 2 Acetyl coA Co2

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What are the other names for the Kreb Cycle?

-Citric Acid Cycle -Tri Carboxylic Acid Cycle

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In Krebs cycle, what does Oxaloacetate (4C) become?

With the breakdown of acetyl coA into coASH by Citrate Synthatase, Citrate (6C) is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Citrate (6C) become?

With the removal of H2O then addition of H2O by Aconitase, Isocitrate is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Isocitrate become?

With the removal of CO2 and the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, Diketoglutarate is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Diketoglutarate become?

With the addition of coASH, removal of CO2, and the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Alpha Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase, Succinyl coA is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Succinyl coA become?

With the removal of coASH, conversion of GDP + iP into GTP which then converts ADP + iP into ATP all by Succinyl coA Synthetase, Succinate (4C) is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Succinate (4C) become?

With the build up of FAD + 2e + 2H^+ into FADH2 by Succinate Dehydrogenase, Fumarate (4C) is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Fumarate (4C) become?

With the addition of H2O by Fumarase, Malate is formed

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In Krebs cycle, what does Malate become?

With the build up of NAD^+ + 2e + 2H^+ into NADH + H^+ by Malate Dehygrogense, Oxaloacetate (4C) is formed

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What is the priming phase in Krebs cycle?

Oxaloacetate to Isocitrate

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What is the oxidative phase in Krebs cycle?

Isocitrate to Succinate

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What is the regeneration phase in Krebs cycle?

Succinate to Oxaloacetate

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Total yield from Krebs cycle?

2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADH2

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Why is it Krebs "Cycle"?

The starting compound is regenerated

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When does the complete glucose break down happen?

In Krebs cycle when all organic carbon becomes inorganic carbon (CO2)

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How many ATP does Glycolysis produce?

2 ATP 5 ATP (from 2 NADH) TOTAL 7 ATP

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How many ATP does Pyruvate Oxidation produce?

3 ATP (from 2 NADH, 2 used to get inside)

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How many ATP does Krebs cycle produce?

2 ATP 15 ATP (from 6 NADH) 3 ATP (from 2 NADH2)

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How many ATP does 1 glucose produce?

30 ATP

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What are the two functions of Oxidative Phosphorylation?

  1. Oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to provide energy to make a proton gradient in inter membrane space

  2. ATP synthase enzyme: H^+ flow by chemiosmosis through ATP synthase to provide energy for iP + ADP into ATP

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Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

inner mitochondrial membrane

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What is the first protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

NADH dehydrogenase = proton PUMP

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What is the second protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

Succinate reductase = NOT proton PUMP

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What is the third protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

Cytochrome b-c1 = proton PUMP

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What is the fourth protein in the oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

Cytochrome oxidase = proton PUMP

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What is the first carrier in oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

Q= ubiquinone carrier transport electron from I to 3 and 2 to 3.

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What is the second carrier in oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain?

Cytc= cytochrome C transport electron from 3 to 4.

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What happens to the two deenergized electrons at end of electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation?

ee + 2H^+ + 1/2O2 becomes H2O

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In which direction does electronegativity increase in the electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation?

Toward the O2 at the end

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How much ATP does one NADH produce in electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation?

1 NADH goes through 3 pumps and makes 2.5 ATP (1/2 ATP lost due to imperfect system)

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How much ATP does one FADH2 produce in electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation?

1 FADH2 goes through 2 pumps and makes 1.5 ATP (1/2 ATP lost due to imperfect system)

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Why is electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation not a perfect system?

  1. Leaky mitochondrial matrix

  2. Not all proton go through ATP synthase 3 Not all NADH formed go through electron transport chain

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What are all the parts of the ATP synthase?

9-12: c = proton channel 1 a= connect c to b 2 b=connects membrane embedded parts to matrix embedded ones ε= epsilon ɣ= gamma, rotates clockwise direction (120 * 3) which forces all 3 β to change confirmation which releases ATP into mito. matrix 3 β = beta, conformational change 3 α = alpha δ= delta, connects b to β

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Succinate dehydrogenase being inhibited by oxaloacetate is an example of what?

Competitive inhibition in the Krebs Cycle

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Phosphofructokinase being inhibited by ATP is an example of what?

Allosteric Inhibition in Glycolysis

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Pyruvate Dcarboxylase being inhibited by NADH is an example of what?

Allosteric inhibition in Pyruvate Oxidation

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Citrate synthase being inhibited by ATP is an example of what?

Allosteric inhibition in the Kreb Cycle

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Describe the experiment done to prove a proton gradient was needed to make ATP

Proton gradient observed in light and dark environment in bacteria, only the light environment produced ATP

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Describe the experiment done to prove a segment in the ATP synthase actually does a 360 rotation

Actin was attached to ɣ subunit and then ATP was sent through. Actin was observed to move 360 proving that the ɣ subunit also rotates 360.

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