BSC 114 Exam 3

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somatic cells have __ chromosomes

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Biology

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1

somatic cells have __ chromosomes

46

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2

chromatin is found in the

nucleus

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3

reproductive cells have __ chromosomes

23

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4

reproductive cells

germ cells

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cells total hereditary endowment of DNA

genome

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DNA is complexed with proteins called

histones

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__ forms chromosomes

chromatin

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8

length of cell cycle varies from

10-30 hours

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9

G1

growth

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S

replication

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G2

preparation for division

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function of mitosis

separate genetic info into 2 quantities

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organize microtubules of spindle apparatus

centrosomes

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region where chromatids are held together

centromere

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15

protein structure on chromatids where spindle microtubules attach

kinetochore

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16

kinetochore is located at the __ region

centromere

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17

interphase has __ nucleus

1

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18

interphase has __ chromosomes, each consisting of __ chromatid(s)

46, 1

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19

prophase has __ nucleus

1

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20

prophase has __ chromosomes, each consisting of __ chromatid(s)

46, 2

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21

telophase has __ nucleus

2

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22

t/f: cell cycle includes both interphase and mitosis

true

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23

t/f: interphase is much longer and complicated than mitosis

true

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24

__ phase of cell cycle is the key phase in controlling cell division

G1

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25

determines whether cell divides

restriction point of G1

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26

stimulates other cells to divide

growth factor

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27

says that crowded cells usually stop dividing

density dependent inhibition

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a single individual is the sole parent and passes on all of its genes directly to its offspring

asexual reproduction

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29

group of genetically identical individuals

clone

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30

t/f: no multicellular organisms can reproduce asexually

false, some can

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31

the only possible differences between the parent and offspring will be via __

mutations

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much greater genetic variation results from __ reproduction compared to __ reproduction

sexual, asexual

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33

karyotype organizes chromosomes according to

number, size, type

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chromosomes in karyotype are arrested in the __ stage of mitosis

metaphase

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chromosomes that look quite similar but were inherited from different parents

homologous chromosomes

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in __ organisms, chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs

diploid

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specific location of a gene

locus

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homologs differ in the version of some genes at their corresponding __

loci

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X and Y

sex chromosomes

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non sex chromosomes

autosomes

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cell with a single set of chromosomes

haploid

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cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent

diploid

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process that halves the diploid set to a single haploid set of chromosomes

meiosis

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restores the diploid set from meiosis

fertilization

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meiosis II results in __ daughter cells instead of 2 and each has only __ the number of chromosomes

4, half

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arrangement of chromosomes on the __ plate determines which chromosomes will be packaged together

metaphase I

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47

a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during metaphase I of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur.

chiasmata

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48

crossing over occurs during __ of meiosis I

prophase

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__ produces individual chromosomes that combine genes inherited from our 2 parents

crossing over

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when homologous portions of 2 non sister chromatids trade places

recombination

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humans have - crossovers per pair of chromosomes

2-3

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yellow, purple, round

dominant

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green, white, wrinkled

recessive

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each gamete has __ allele(s)

1

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members of a pair of genes separate from each other during gamete formation

law of segregation

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each character an organism inherits __ allele(s)

2

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alternate versions of genes

alleles

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genetic composition

genotype

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outward appearance

phenotype

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cross involving genes at 1 locus

monohybrid cross

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to determine genotype of a parent with a dominant phenotype, a __ can be done on unknown genotype

test cross

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tester

homozygous recessive

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mendel's second law

law of independent assortment

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says that genes for a pair of traits are distributed independently of one another when gametes are formed

law of independent assortment

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law of independent assortment only occurs when the genes are

on separate chromosomes

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examines the inheritance of genes at __ loci

2

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dominant allele codes for

functional protein

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recessive allele codes for

nonfunctional protein

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__ dominance says that YY and Yy have the same phenotype

complete

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__ dominance says that both alleles are expressed. ex: AB blood

co

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__ dominance says that the phenotype is intermediate between homozygous phenotypes

incomplete

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an individual can only have __ alleles per locus

2

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t/f: an individual can only have 2 alleles per locus, but there can be more than 2 in the population

true

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blood groups are examples of (2)

multiple alleles and codominance

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t/f: each sperm and egg can have multiple alleles

false; only 1

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gene interaction

epistasis

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a gene at one location may affect more than one trait

pleiotropy

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multiple genes affect one trait

polygenic inheritance

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phenotype is the results of interaction between

genotype and environment

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males designated with __

squares

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females designated with __

circles

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trait being traced is designated with __

shaded area

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a death is designated with __

slashed area

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chromosomes occur in __ nuclei

2n

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chromosomes separate at __

meiosis

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t/f: chromosomes exhibit independent assortment

true

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chromosomes unite at __

fertilization

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a cell contains __ genes

thousands

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t/f: all genes follow independent assortment

false, lots of genes on the same chromosome

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90

genes that are close together on the same chromosome

linked

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linked chromosomes do not exhibit independent assortment during __

meiosis

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on different chromosomes, independent assortment

unlinked genes

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first to associate a specific gene with a specific chromosome

Thomas Hunt Morgan

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gene takes its symbol from the first __ discovered

mutant

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normal phenotype is called

wild type

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offspring like parents

parentals

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offspring different from the parents

recombinants

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independent assortment results

50 parental, 50 recombinant

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linked and no crossing over results

100 parental

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linked and crossing over results

depends on frequency of crossing over

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