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Basic Troubleshooting Steps

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1

Basic Troubleshooting Steps

  1. Disconnect any new hardware (disconnect the device, restart Windows XP)

  2. Search the Microsoft Knowledge Base (cop error message, visit site, write error message in "start" box, find article that will help)

  3. Disable automatic restart on system failure (restart computer, press F8 key repeatedly while restarting, use arrow keys to select "disable automatic restart on system failure", press "enter")

  4. Use system restore feature

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Evaluate outcomes to determine whether problem was solved as intended and to determine needed follow-up actions

  1. Restart, press F8 key, safe mode with command prompt, then run

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Impact of changes that affect interfaces

Delay in audio

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File Organization

Stored in hard drive. Accessibility can be maintained through a password or file permission in the form of permission bits, access control lists, or capabilities. Also can rely on encryption but an attacker can copy the data and use brute force to decrypt the data.

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Naming Conventions for Networks, Files, Accounts, and Services

All files have a base file name and an optional extension, separated by a period. Use a backlash () to separate the components of a path. It divides the file name from the path to it. Use two periods (..) as a directory component in a path to represent the parent of the current directory (i.e. ..\temp.txt.)

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Determine methods for increasing performance (balancing network load)

  1. Balance load requests across the NLB cluster for individual TCP/IP services

  2. Support up to 32 computers in a single cluster

  3. Balance multiple server load requests (from either same client or several).

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This balances network sessions like Web or email over multiple connections in order to spread out amount of bandwidth used by each LAN user, thus increasing total amount of bandwidth available

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Role of Network Manager and Basic Principles of Network Management

Network Manager: responsible for installing and maintaining company's computer networks. Also, you must train staff to provide first rate technical support.

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Basic Principles of Network Management:

Operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems. Essential to command and control practices and is generally carried out of a network operation center.

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Procedures for Network Optimization and Tuning

Tuning:

  1. Have enough physical memory to load InnoDB file

  2. Avoid Swap at all costs (slows down)

  3. Use battery-Backed RAM

  4. Use advanced RAID (RAID 10 or higher)

  5. Avoid RAID5

  6. More disks that are fast

  7. Smaler disks

  8. Avoid software raids

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Optimization:

  1. Keep database trim

  2. put indexes on data

  3. archive old data

  4. compress text and blob data types

  5. check and optimize tables

  6. use different storage engines for different needs

  7. use linking tables rather than extending rows

  8. make schema changes incrementally

  9. use MySQL config file

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Procedures for managing network assets

  1. Identify assets in system.

  2. Clean up information in the CMDB. Remove info that is obsolete or invalid. Ensure that all remaining info is accurate and complete

  3. Create categories of asset models such as computers, servers, printers, and software.

  4. Create asset models.

  5. Create individual assets, such as hardware, consumables, and software licenses.

  6. Manage assets by counting software licenses, viewing assets that are in stock, setting asset states and substates, and analyzing unallocated software.

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Install and monitor server software applications

  1. located installation program.

  2. Follow installation wizard instructions.

  3. Restart the server if it does not restart automatically

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System Analysis and Bandwidth Optimization

Enables one to capture data from continuous streams of network traffic.

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Perform Resource Management

  1. Resource leveling- aims at smoothing stock of resources and reduce both excess inventories and shortages

  2. Invest in resources as stored capabilities, then unleash them as demanded

  3. Minimize cost as much as possible

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Respond to system messages

Through adaptive server

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Document actions taken (backups, virus prevention, software distribution)

How to backup: Bring to alternate medium (like blank CD-R or DVD-R). Store backups online or another location. Have a computer with RAID that makes backups as data changes to make sure data is protected and updated=ongoing backup.

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How to have virus protection: Download security software. Run scan after.

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Software distribution:

Process of delivering software to end user. Include: floppy disks, compact disks, DVDs, HTTP and related protocols, etc. LANDesk Management Suite provides software distribution for Windows, OS X, and Linux.

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Evaluate software activities and execute network diagnostic program for software and hardware

Software peer reviews (by author of product), software management reviews (by management representatives to evaluate status of work done), software audit reviews (by personnel external to software project).

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Types of reviews:

-code review (systematic examination) -pair programming (type of code review where two persons develop code together at same workstation) -inspection (formal type, reviewers follow well-defined process to find defects) -walkthrough (author leads members of development team. Participants ask questions and comments about defects) -Technical review (peer review in which team identifies discrepancies from specs and standards)

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How resources are shared by setting up and admin rights (permissions and quotas)

Shared resource/network share is comp resource made available fro one host to another on comp networl. Most common protocols are TCP, UDP, NBT, and NBF.

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Technical support and orientation to network system

System administrator offer technical support for projects

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Configure Internet access for network

LAN provide internet access via upstream link to internet service provider, although internet speed is limited by upstream link.

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Purpose of network services and protocols

Provides backbone services to Internet service provider (ISP). It provides dialup connectivity for their customers.

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Identify/Monitor network perimeter

Rogue devices: (how to prevent on network) 1. create baseline inventory of wireless devices 2. classify all discovered devices and configure your tool 3. monitor your wireless and wired network for new devices 4. Stem potential damage during investigation 5. investigate new devices to determine threat 6. update device inventory to reflect outcome

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how to monitor VPN connection: NPS server can be used to track remote access network usage and create log file for auditing and billing purposes. Also can use NAP/IAS API to program disconnections and modify users' dial-in session and permission with specified value.

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Impact of modifying, adding, or removing network services

(using a DHCP for example) adding benefits: can reconfigure entire IP address system without users noticing negatives: all client systems need to be configured to use DHCP. if not, then they will not be able to access the network. removed: significant impact on network users. All clients require valid IP address to get on network. So, if it is unavailable, each client system would need to be configured with a static IP address.

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Design remote connectivity

WAN technologies and WAN transport media must be utilized. WAN remote access choices include cable and DSL technologies that are used with VPN.

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Network cards and settings

Network card acts as interface between computer and network cable. Purpose is to prepare, send, and control data on network. Paths taken by data moving with a computer are called "buses"

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Settings: IRQ:

network cards use IRQ3 and 5 I/O base address: each device must have a different address Memory address: designates a RAM location in computer. Use slot to buffer for data for entering and leaving.

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Purpose/benefits of proxy service

Purpose: -server that is in-between real server and application -intercepts all requests to real server

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Benefits: -network pass through proxy and it can alter -replace user agent -accept all cookies (bit not pass them to you) -proxy connects to server, not you, so your IP is not disclosed -set up to work system-wide, so systems cannot bypass it

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Emerging networks and technologies

MPTCP (can use different connection paths). Can also break mostly every security control.

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Configure VLAN to map an IP network

Admins often configure CLAN to map IP network which gives it the appearance of involving :ayer 3 (the network layer)

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Tracking/monitoring of VLAN

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MAC or DAC (security controls)

Types of access control by which operating system constrains ability of subject to access or perform operation on object or target.

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Common Routing Protocols

How routers communicate with one another (routed protocols examples are IP and IPX). Three major classes: Interior gateway protocols type 1, type 2, and exterior gateway protocols

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Windows NT

Which network operating system was developed from the VMS platform?

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UNIX

Which operating system was originally developed by Bell Labs and has multitasking, multiuser, and built in networking capabilities?

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Novell NetWare

Which of the following are network operating systems and not simply operating systems that will communicate on a network?

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Protocol

What do networks use to communicate with each other that is sometimes known as a language that networked computers use?

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IPX

Which network protocol was developed by Novell for use in its network operating system?

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TCP/IP

Which protocol is used on the Internet to give each computer a unique address?

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Disk Duplexing

When multiple disk controllers are used in a drive mirroring scenario, it is known as which of the following?

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Data Transmission

Which of the following is NOT a layer in the OSI model?

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RJ-45

Which of the following is NOT a common type of medium used in networking?

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185 Meters

What is the distance limitation on 10Base2, or Thinnet?

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49

Full Duplex

When data is able to travel in both directions on a cable, it is known as which of the following?

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Peer-to-Peer

In what type of network is there no dedicated server and each mode on the network is an equal resource for sharing and receiving information?

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Gateway

In order for differing networks to communicate with each other, we need to use which of the following to translate between the networks?

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Passive

Which of the following types of hubs does NOT regenerate the signal when transmitting over the normal specified distance?

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Repeater

What network component is used to extend the distance of the signal when transmitting over the normal specified distance?

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DMA

Which of the following must be set to enable a device to directly access memory on the system, without the CPU's intervention.

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Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

What does EPROM stand for?

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.C.G.

If you are configuring a NIC in DOS, which of the following is the most likely extension for the file that determines the settings for the interface card?

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Add a network card that has a remote boot PROM chip

If you have a workstation that has no diskette drive or hard drive and you want to put the workstation on your network, what do you have to do?

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58

A 15-pin D female connector

What is an AUI connector?

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Switching Hub

What type of network component enables each device to have the full bandwidth of the medium when transmitting?

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Multistation Access Unit

What does MAU stand for?

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Hybrid

What type of hub enables more than one type of cable or media to connect to it?

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The route with the fewest number of hops will be used

What will happen if we have a routing table with the same route to the same destination network?

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They cannot be configured with static routes

Which of the following is NOT true regarding dynamic routers?

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The packet will not be sent

What will happen if the default gateway is not specified on your computer and you try to reach another network?

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It is responsible for encrypting session information

Which of the following is NOT true of the transport layer of the OSI model?

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Datagrams

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of connection-oriented communication?

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Connection-oriented data transfer is NOT quicker than connectionless-oriented data transfer

Why is connection-oriented data delivery faster?

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A bulletin board and an answering machine

Which of the following are the best examples of a mailslot?

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NetBIOS

The LMHOSTS file is a static file to resolve what types of names?

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ARP

Which utility can be used to display and modify the table that maintains the TCP/IP address to Mac address translation?

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ARP

Which protocols do NOT have statistics available with the Netstat utility?

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Telnet

Which utility enables you to execute console commands remotely at a virtual terminal?

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NBTSTAT

Which protocol uses a 16-character name, with the last digit reserved as a resource identifier?

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NBTSTAT

Which utility can be used to troubleshoot NetBIOS over TCP/IP connectivity issues?

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-c

Which NBTSTAT switch enables you to display the computer's local NetBT name cache?

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Broadcast and WINS server

In what ways can a computer with a NetBIOS name register its services on the network?

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Tracert

Which utility is used to determine the path that data takes during transport to a remote host?

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Netstat

Which utility is used to display TCP/IP specific protocol and interface statistics?

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FTP

Which utility is used to facilitate file transfers between two remote hosts?

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Ping

Which utility is used to verify network connectivity of a remote host?

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NSLOOKUP

Which utility is used to verify the DNA database on a DNS server?

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IPX

Which network layer protocols can Serial Line Internet Protocol use during a dial-up session?

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network control protocol and link control protocol

Which components are part of Point-to-Point Protocol?

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CHAP and PAP

Which forms of validation can PPP use to authenticate users against a remote server?

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NI-1

What was the first Integrated Services Digital Network standard to be published by the ITU?

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20

How many B channels are available in a typical ISDN PRI?

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NetWare Connect, Point-to-Point Protocol, and Serial Line Internet Protocol

What line protocols are available with Microsoft's Dial Up Networking?

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3

What is the default IRQ setting for COM2?

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V.42

Which modem standard defines error-checking standards?

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RDP and ICA

What two terminal service protocols can be used in terminal services environment?

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Circuit

Which switching technology is used by the telephone company?

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Analog

How are the signals sent on an ATM network?

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1

How many streams does the SONET network transfer?

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Scrambler

What can be used in a SONET network to allow user's data to remain private?

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192

What is the highest OC level?

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By the protocol used

How is error checking managed on a Frame Relay network?

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A portion of the primary ring that has not failed, and a part of the secondary ring that is equal to the primary ring that has not failed

If the primary ring fails, what is used for redundancy?

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24

How many channels make up a TI?

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Local Security Authority (LSA)

What portion of the Windows NT security subsystem handles both local security policies and user authentication, and generates audit log messages?

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100

Discretionary Access Control List (DACL)

What access control object determines what users and groups have permission to this object?

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