APUSH Term 3

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Homestead Act, 1862

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1

Homestead Act, 1862

Act which allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30

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2

Pacific Railway Act, 1862

A series of laws that promoted the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies

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3

Exoduster

African American who migrated from the South to Kansas in the post-Reconstruction years

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4

Frederick Jackson Turner

American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for the homeless and solved social problems.

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5

Sand Creek Massacre

Incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in 1864

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6

Battle of Little Big Horn

General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse in 1876

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7

Ghost Dancer Movement

Movement founded in 1889 intent on bringing back the Buffalo and killing the white man, gave native Americans hope, spread to the reservations

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8

Wounded Knee

1890 confrontation between U.S. cavalry and Sioux where the U.S. soldiers surrounded and slaughtered about 300 Lakota men, women, and children that marked the end of Indian resistance

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9

Dawes Severalty Act

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, ineffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

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10

"A Century of Dishonor"

Book written by Helen Hunt Jackson detailing the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion

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11

Tuskegee Institute

Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

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12

Plessy v. Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state-ordered segregation as long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

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13

Atlanta Compromise

Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.

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14

Niagara Movement

W.E.B. Du Bois and other young activists, who did not believe in accommodation, came together at ______ Falls in 1905 to demand full black equality

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15

Ida B. Wells

African American journalist who published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white-owned stores

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16

Horizontal Integration

Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

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17

Vertical Integration

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

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18

Robber Baron

a business leader who became wealthy through dishonest methods

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19

Captain of Industry

a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way.

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20

Social Darwinism

The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.

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21

Haymarket Bombing

May 4, 1886, conflict in which both workers and policemen were killed or wounded during a labor demonstration in Chicago. The violence began when someone threw a bomb into the ranks of police at the gathering. The incident created a backlash against labor activism.

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22

American Federation of Labor

1886; union founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better working conditions/wages; skilled laborers (men), non-violent used collective bargaining

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23

Knights of Labor

Led by Terence V. Powderly; an open-membership policy (women, colored people, immigrants) goal was for better wages/working conditions (eight-hour work day); weak leadership and organization, a bad public reputation led to their decline

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24

Homestead Strike

an 1892 Carnegie Steel plant workers' strike (after a wage cut) that was broken by the state militia and resulted in the killing of 16 people and causing many injuries, the union organizers were jobless, and massive the steel plant workers took a massive loss.

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25

Pullman Strike

Widespread railroad strike and boycott that severely disrupted rail traffic in the Midwest of the United States in June-July 1894. The federal government's response to the unrest marked the first time that an injunction was used to break a strike.

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26

Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882

Law that suspended Chinese immigration into America. The ban was supposed to last 10 years, but it was expanded several times and was essentially in effect until WWII. It was the first significant law that restricted immigration into the United States of an ethnic working group. (Extreme example of nativism of period)

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27

Tenement Housing

Housing in the city where many factory workers were forced to live in one-room apartments, was run-down, overcrowded, and unsanitary apartment, especially in a poor section of a large city

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28

Jacob Riis

Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen

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29

Settlement House Movement

Attempted through social work and public advocacy to improve living and working conditions in urban immigrant communities- provided support services to the urban poor and European immigrants, often including education, healthcare, childcare, and employment resources.

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30

Gospel of Wealth

Book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy

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31

Social Gospel Movement

Religious movement that arose during the second half of the 19th century. Ministers, especially ones belonging to the Protestant branch of Christianity, began to tie salvation and good works together. They argued that people must emulate the life of Jesus Christ.

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32

Susan B. Anthony

Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association

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33

Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison and was later extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was first misused AGAINST labor unions

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34

Populist Party

U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies

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35

Panic of 1893

Serious economic depression beginning in _____. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s

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36

Coxey's Army

Protest march by unemployed workers from the US, marched on Washington D.C. in 1894 led by populist Jacob _____, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history at the time

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37

"Cross of Gold"

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold

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38

Josiah Strong

a founder of the Social Gospel movement that sought to apply Protestant religious principles to solve the social ills brought on by industrialization, urbanization and immigration, he believed in the racial superiority of the Anglo- Saxon people and their destiny to expand around the world

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39

Queen Liliuokalani

Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests

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40

Alfred T. Mahan

Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"

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41

Teller Amendment

This Amendment was drafted by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone

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42

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

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43

Open Door Policy

Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.

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44

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

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45

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her book "A History of Standard Oil"

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46

Lincoln Steffens

Muckraker who wrote "tweed days in st. Louis" for McClure's Magazine. He criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title "The Shame of the Cities."

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47

Robert La Follette

Progressive governor of Wisconsin he introduced a new system for bypassing politicians and placing the nomination process directly in the hands of the voter known as the direct primary

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48

16th Amendment

Allows the federal government to collect income tax

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49

17th Amendment

Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)

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50

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

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51

19th Amendment

Gave women the right to vote

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52

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Fire in a New York factory that trapped young women workers inside a locked building; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led states to pass laws to improve safety and working conditions in factories

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53

Square Deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that assured consumer protection, corporate regulation, and conservation of natural resources.

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54

Hepburn Act (1906)

This act imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.

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55

Pure Food and Drug Act

This act forbade the manufacture, sale, and transportation, of adulterated or mislabeled Food and Drugs.

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56

Meat Inspection Act

This act provided that federal inspectors visit meatpacking plants to ensure that they meet the minimum standards of Sanitation.

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57

Newlands Reclamation Act

This act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects in the dry Western states

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58

John Muir

Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California. Founded Sierra Club, and fought to prevent the damming of the Hetch Hetchy Valley.

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59

Bull Moose Party

Name given to the Progressive Party that was formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912

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60

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Intending the strength of the earlier legislation, this act prevented trade practices that were unfair and harmful to the competitiveness of markets in their infancy. Certain activities such as not allowing unions in factories and not allowing strikes were declared illegal

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61

Lusitania

British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war

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62

Zimmerman Telegram

Message Germany sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S- resulted in the outrage of Americans

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63

Fourteen Points

Series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I; included Wilson's ideas regarding nations' conduct of foreign policy, including freedom of the seas and free trade and the concept of national self-determination

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64

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty which ended WWI and is particularly known for its harsh reparations towards the Germans- it required that Germany pay financial reparations, disarm, lose territory, and give up all of its overseas colonies

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65

League of Nations

An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace-- the US did not join.

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66

William Borah

Led a group of senators who were irreconcilably opposed to joining the League of Nations; he promoted ideals of traditional isolationism and believed the League was "an entangling foreign alliance"

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67

Food Administration

Government agency led by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military during World War 1

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68

Committee on Public Information (CPI)

Government agency created during World War I to encourage Americans to support the war and mobilize public opinion- used every available form of mass communication (propaganda)

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69

Espionage Act, 1917

Act passed shortly after entering World War I which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. (feared any widespread dissent in time of war, thinking that it constituted a real threat to an American victory)

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70

Sedition Act, 1918

Curtailed the free speech rights of U.S. citizens during times of war; made it illegal for Americans to speak disloyally about the U.S. government

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71

Schenck v. US

U.S. Supreme Court decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I (indicted the violation of the Espionage Act). Ultimately, the case served as the founding of the "clear and present danger" rule

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72

Great Migration

Movement of over 300,000 African Americans from the rural south into Northern cities (New York, Chicago, Detroit, and Pittsburgh) between 1914 and 1920

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73

Red Scare

Period of intense fear/hysteria of the potential rise of communism and other politically radical ideas in the U.S.

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74

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean

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75

Scopes Trial

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools. Arose into a big debate of fundamentalism vs. modernism nationwide

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76

Sacco and Vanzetti

Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; were arrested, tried, and executed for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs

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77

Immigration Act, 1924

Also known as the Johnson-Reed Act. Federal law limiting the number of immigrants that could be admitted from any country to 2% of the amount of people from that country who were already living in the U.S. as of the census of 1890

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78

Ku Klux Klan

Secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights, also targeted immigrants

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79

Lost Generation

Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that the U.S. was lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe

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80

Harlem Renaissance

Period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished- African-American culture was celebrated

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81

Langston Hughes

African-American poet of the Harlem Renaissance described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. Wrote of African American hope and defiance: "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"

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82

Marcus Garvey

African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa, was deported to Jamaica in 1927

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83

Teapot Dome Scandal

Government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

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84

Flappers

Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior

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85

Speakeasies

Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally during the time of prohibition

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86

Henry Cabot Lodge

Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened

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87

Black Tuesday

Worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression, October 29, 1929

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88

Buying on Margin

Paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest

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89

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Protective import tax authorized by Congress in 1930. Charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation, worsened the Great Depression

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90

Bonus March

Event when nearly 17,000 veterans marched on Washington in 1932, to demand the military bonuses that they had been promised; this group was eventually driven from their camp city by the U.S army; increased the public perception that the Hoover administration cared little about the poor

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91

Frances Perkins

U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet

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92

CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)

Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.

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93

TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

Federation which provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in 1933, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression. Built a hydroelectric dam!

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94

FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Agency providing federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000

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95

SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)

Independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors and creates/enforces rules for the stock market

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96

FHA (Federal Housing Administration)

New Deal agency which gave both the construction industry and homeowners a boost by insuring bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones

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97

WPA (Work Progress Administration)

Massive work relief agency funded projects ranging from construction to acting and provided work relief through various public-works projects; disbanded by FDR during WWII

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98

Social Security Act of 1935

Created both the Social Security Program and a national assistance program for poor children, usually called AFDC. Provided old-age pension (retirement), and a program of unemployment insurance (temporary aid to help people who lose jobs to find a new job), and federal welfare program (aid for very poor). Most famous and important legacy of New Deal. Has resulted (along with Medicare) with drastic reduction in poverty among elderly in the US

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99

Father Charles Coughlin

Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air. (critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system)

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100

Huey Long

Senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million, proposed to give every American family a comfortable income

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