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Keystone Exam: Constructed Response

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Keystone Exam: Constructed Response

  • CCARS - complete clear accurate relevant s-

  • atp

  • 2 pieces of evidence

  • prompt asks 2 things

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purpose of imagery

Imagery is used in literature to create vivid mental images in the reader's mind. It helps to enhance the reader's understanding of the text by appealing to their senses and emotions. The purpose of imagery is to make the text more engaging and memorable, as well as to convey the author's message in a more powerful way.

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purpose of personification

gives human-like characteristics to non-human things

  • Gives human-like characteristics to non-human like things to help the reader relate to and better understand the text. Makes the text more engaging for the reader.

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main idea

  • key info the author wants you to know

  • central point or message that the author coneys in a piece of writing. most important thought or concept the reader should take away from the text

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main idea vs theme

the main idea is what the book is mostly about. the theme is the message, moral, or lesson of the book.

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finding the main idea

  • ask yourself who or whom the writing is about

  • ask “what does the author want me to know about this topic”

  • authors often explicitly state the main idea in the intro or conclusion

  • ask yourself what the protagonist or characters are learning

  • look for reversal transitions…. words like but, otherwise, however.

  • look for ideas that are repeated in different ways

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Fiction vs. Nonfiction

Fiction comes from imagination vs. nonfiction that’s solely based on facts.

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Figurative Language

Tools or techniques that writers use to make their writing more interesting or easier to understand.

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Purpose of Figurative Language

Authors use fig. lang. to better communicate their complex and abstract ideas that cannot be easily understood. Help to elicit emotion, help readers form mental images and draw readers into the work.

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Author’s Purpose

Author’s reason for writing. P. I. E. = Persuade, Inform, or Entertain. We can ask ourselves about word choice, tone, connotations, and opinions an author includes in the writing to find the author’s purpose.

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Connotation

the feeling a word evokes

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Denotation

dicstionary definition of a word

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rhyming poem

the pattern of sounds that repeats at the end of a line or stanza

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meter

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prose

written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure.

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stanza

a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines arranged together in a usually repeating pattern of rhythm and rhyme.

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syntax

The ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.

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free verse

poetry that does not rhyme and does not have a regular rhythm.

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sonnet

  1. a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line.

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ballad

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heroic couplet

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Affix

One or more letters occurring as a bound form attached to the beginning, end, or base of a word and serving to

produce a derivative word or an inflectional form (e.g., a prefix or suffix).

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Allegory

A form of extended metaphor in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings

that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning may have moral, social, religious, or political significance, and

characters are often personifications of abstract ideas such as charity, greed, or envy.

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alliteration

The repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.

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allusion

An implied or indirect reference in literature to a familiar person, place, or event.

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analysis

The process or result of identifying the parts of a whole and their relationships to one another.

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antonym

A word that is the opposite in meaning to another word.

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Argument/Position

The position or claim the author establishes. Arguments should be supported with valid evidence

and reasoning and balanced by the inclusion of counterarguments that illustrate opposing viewpoints.

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bias

The subtle presence of a positive or negative approach toward a topic

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biography

a written account of another persons life

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character

A person, animal or inanimate object portrayed in a literary work.

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characterization

The method an author uses to reveal characters and their various traits and personalities

(e.g., direct, indirect).

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climax

The turning point in a narrative; the moment when the conflict is at its most intense. Typically, the structure of

stories, novels, and plays is one of rising action, in which tension builds to the climax.

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compare/contrast

Place together characters, situations, or ideas to show common and/or differing features in literary

selections.

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conflict

A struggle or clash between opposing characters, forces, or emotions.

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context clues

Words and phrases in a sentence, paragraph, and/or whole text, which help reason out the meaning of an

unfamiliar word.

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cultural significance

The generally accepted importance of a work representing a given culture.

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defense of a claim

Support provided to mark an assertion as reasonable.

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dialect

A variety of a language distinct from the standard variety in pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary.

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dialogue

In its widest sense, dialogue is simply conversation between characters or speakers in a literary work; in its

most restricted sense, it refers specifically to the speech of characters in a drama.

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Differentiate

Distinguish, tell apart, and recognize differences between two or more items.

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drama

The genre of literature represented by works intended for the stage; a work to be performed by actors on stage,

radio, or television; play.

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dramatic script

The written text of a play, which includes the dialogue between characters, stage directions and often

other expository information.

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draw conclusion

To make a judgment or decision based on reasoning rather than direct or implicit statement.

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elements of fiction

Traits that mark a work as imaginative or narrative discourse (e.g., plot, theme, symbol).

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elements of nonfiction

Traits that mark a work as reportorial, analytical, informative or argumentative (e.g., facts,

data, charts, graphics, headings).

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evaluate

Examine and judge carefully. To judge or determine the significance, worth or quality of something; to assess.

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explain

to make clear and understandable

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explicit

Clearly expressed or fully stated in the actual text.

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exposition

A narrative device, often used at the beginning of a work that provides necessary background information

about the characters and their circumstances.

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fact

A piece of information provided objectively, presented as true.

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falling action

The part of a literary plot that is characterized by diminishing tensions and the resolution of the plot’s

conflicts and complications.

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fiction

Any story that is the product of imagination rather than a documentation of fact. Characters and events in such

narratives may be based in real life but their ultimate form and configuration is a creation of the author.

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figurative language

Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling.

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first person

The “first person” or “personal” point of view relates events as they are perceived by a single character. The

narrating character may offer opinions about the action and characters that differ from those of the author.

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flashback

An organizational device used in literature to present action that occurred before current (present) time of

the story. Flashbacks are often introduced as the dreams or recollections of one or more characters.

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focus

the center of interest or attention

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foreshadowing

An organizational device used in literature to create expectation or to set up an explanation of later

developments.

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generalization

A conclusion drawn from specific information that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or

person.

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genre

A category used to classify literary works, usually by form, technique or content (e.g., prose, poetry).

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headings, graphics, charts

Any visual cues on a page of text that offer additional information to guide the

reader’s comprehension. Headings typically are words or phrases in bold print that indicate a topic or the theme of a

portion of text; graphics may be photographs, drawings, maps or any other pictorial representation; charts (and tables or

graphs) condense data into a series of rows, lines or other shortened lists.

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hyperbole

extreme exaggeration

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imagery

Descriptive or figurative language in a literary work; the use of language to create sensory impressions.

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implicit

Though unexpressed in the actual text, meaning that may be understood by the reader; implied.

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inference

A judgment based on reasoning rather than on a direct or explicit statement. A conclusion based on facts or

circumstances; understanding gained by “reading between the lines.”

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informational text

Nonfiction written primarily to convey factual information. Informational texts comprise the majority

of printed material adults read (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, reports, directions, brochures, technical manuals).

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interpret

To give reasons through an explanation to convey and represent the meaning or understanding of a text.

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irony

The use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or usual meaning; incongruity between the

actual result of a sequence of events and the expected result.

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key/supporting details

Points of information in a text that strongly support the meaning or tell the story. Statements

that define, describe, or otherwise provide information about the topic, theme, or main idea.

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key words

Specific word choices in a text that strongly support the tone, mood, or meaning of the text.

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literary device

Tool used by the author to enliven and provide voice to the text (e.g., dialogue, alliteration).

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literary element

An essential technique used in literature (e.g., characterization, setting, plot, theme).

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literary form

The overall structure or shape of a work that frequently follows an established design. Forms may refer to

a literary type (narrative, short story) or to patterns of meter, lines, and rhymes (stanza, verse).

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literary movement

A trend or pattern of shared beliefs or practices that mark an approach to literature (e.g., Realism,

Naturalism, Romanticism).

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literary nonfiction

Text that includes literary elements and devices usually associated with fiction to report on actual

persons, places, or events. Examples include nature and travel text, biography, memoir and the essay.

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main idea

The author’s central thought; the chief topic of a text expressed or implied in a word or phrase; the topic

sentence of a paragraph.

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metaphor

The comparison of two unlike things in which no words of comparison (like or as) are used (e.g., The speech

gave me food for thought.)

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monologue

An extended speech spoken by one speaker, either to others or as if alone.

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mood

The prevailing emotions or atmosphere of a work derived from literary devices such as dialogue and literary

elements such as setting. The mood of a work is not always what might be expected based on its subject matter.

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motif

a reccuring subject, theme or idea

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multiple meaning words

Words that have several meanings depending upon how they are used in a sentence.

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narrative

A story, actual or fictional, expressed orally or in text.

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narrator

A person, animal, or thing telling the story or giving an account of something.

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nonfiction

Text that is not fictional; designed primarily to explain, argue, instruct or describe rather than entertain. For

the most part, its emphasis is factual.

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opinion

personal view or beliefs

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personification

An object or abstract idea given human qualities or human form (e.g., Flowers danced about the

lawn.)

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plot

The structure of a story. The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The structure often includes

the rising action, the climax, the falling action, and the resolution. The plot may have a protagonist who is opposed by an

antagonist, creating what is called conflict.

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poetry

In its broadest sense, text that aims to present ideas and evoke an emotional experience in the reader through the

use of meter, imagery and connotative and concrete words. Some poetry has a carefully constructed structure based on

rhythmic patterns. Poetry typically relies on words and expressions that have several layers of meaning (figurative

language). It may also make use of the effects of regular rhythm on the ear and may make a strong appeal to the senses

through the use of imagery.

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point of view

The position of the narrator in relation to the story, as indicated by the narrator’s outlook from which the

events are depicted (e.g., first person, third person limited, third person omniscient, etc). The perspective from which a

speaker or author recounts a narrative or presents information. The author’s manner in revealing characters, events, and

ideas; the vantage point from which a story is told.

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prefix

Groups of letters placed before a word to alter its meaning.

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propoganda

Information aimed at positively or negatively influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of

people.

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propoganda tenchniques

Propaganda techniques and persuasive tactics are used to influence people to believe, buy

or do something. Students should be able to identify and comprehend the propaganda

techniques and persuasive tactics listed below.

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name calling

is an attack on a person instead of an issue.

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bandwagon

tries to persuade the reader to do, think or buy something because it is popular or because

“everyone” is doing it.

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red herring

is an attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument.

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emotional appeal

tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the reader’s emotions instead

of appealing to logic or reason.

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testimonial

attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea (for

instance, the celebrity endorsement).

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repetition

attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.

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Sweeping generalization: (stereotyping)

makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited

information.

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circular argument

states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument.

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