APUSH Unit 5

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Manifest Destiny

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Manifest Destiny

American (European distended migrants) felt that it was their right and responsibility to move/expand to spread ideals (religious ideals and infrastructure, American culture). The goal was the get all the land from the pacific to the Atlantic.

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Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842

Established current boundary between Maine and New Brunswick and the US gained rights on the St. John river. (we will give you more water access, but be more strict about the slave trade off the African coast.)

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Free soil Party

were not opposed to the spread of slavery because of morals, but economics. The slaves and large plantations were taking away from the business of the smaller white farmers in the north.

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bisectional political parties

The type of politcal parties that were present during the lead up to the civil war. It marked the end of the 2nd party system as different parties such as the republican party emerged. The whigs broke off into multiple different parties.

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The Oregon trail

a rough 2,000 mile passage that took 5 months to cross that would take settlers from the east to Oregon and in certain cases California. Many people died of disease. 34k died on the long difficult journey, only 500 being from natives the other thousands died from conditions and disease.

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The Oregon dispute

Oregon fever was spurred by the promise of free land. The navy had given the land glowing reviews which was a huge full factor(like Albert Bierstadt's painting). Land-hungry farmers were pulled by the fur trade west. The British still had some land claims there and they demanded the territory between 54-40 or they would fight for it.

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Thomas Oliver Larkin

A man who went to California who hoped to promote American ideals and traditions rather than just continuing with the systems that were already formed there. He hoped to eventually colonize and annex California.

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John Sutter

An indebted Swiss immigrant and cattle farmer who found gold on his land and prompted the California gold rush.

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Gold Rush

After the discovery by John Sutter, 80k settlers arrived in California(mostly young men). The mining towns were filled with young men, which prompted saloons, prostitution, and gambling. Caused many Chinese migrants, Mexicans, and natives to be pushed from the land. Early miners became rich, but many did not. Some returned home. Large businesses and corporations began to be established in California.

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Mexican Independence

A very unorganized bloody trail for independence. At the end of their independence movement, they were very unstable both politically and economically. People were declaring themselves as rulers and forming new governments constantly.

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The republic of texas

On march 2nd 1836, american rebels declare independence from mexico. They drafted a constitution which legalized slavery. Santa Anna led an army to Almano and Goliad (in texas/northern mexico) and executed 350 prisoners of war in hopes to crush the rebellion(how he saw it). Americans flocked to texas in order to defend it's independence and the american's eventually won. They soon applied for statehood (1845) which prompted more conflict.

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Santa Anna

The current ruler of Mexico during the Mexican American war. He was a dictator ruler and believed that he could make examples of the american's by killing them to stop at rebellions. This didn't work and America started a war.

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Martin Van Buren

President during the start of the conflict with Mexico. He was hesitant to start a war and after the nullification crisis and the fact that Texas was a slave state he was hesitant to do anything. He served for one term and his actions with Texas cost him his presidency.

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James Polk

Wins the election of 44 with his main goal being to annex Texas. His plan was to quickly move to gain as much territory north of the Rio Grande as possible(where the current border is). He negotiates with Mexico and after they refuses he moved troops into Mexico. When Mexico makes a move, Polk asks congress for a declaration of war (which he gets) and the war begins. The stress of dealing with this war caused his eventual death.

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio grande river. Mexico gave the U.S. California and New Mexico. U.S gave Mexico 15 million and agreed to settle all land claims of American citizens against Mexico.

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The Wilmot Proviso 1846

A provision to Texas’s application for statehood that said that slavery or indentured servitude could not exist and if it does exist there, the people who are doing it will be charged. Passes in the house twice, but not the senate.

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American Plan to remove natives

American ranchers began to hunt buffalo in order to remove the native’s main source of resources (food, clothing, shelter etc.). Also, murder and epidemics were also vital to their removal and death.

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Election of 1848

Polk declines to run for a second term(and eventually dies). The democrat was Lewis Cass (avid expansionist who wanted to get more Latin american countries, promoted squatter sovereignty). The Whig was General Zachary Taylor (defended slavery in the south but does not wish to expand). Martin Van Buren ran in the free soil party. Zachary Taylor won.

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Squatter/popular Sovereignty

Settlers determine whether a state is slave or free based on votes. It is up to the squatter/settlers there. (the popular vote)

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Calhoun/Southern Democrats

proposes amendment to create a dual presidency, arguing slavery was property and the federal government had no right to limit it.

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Buchanan/Northern Democrats

Extend the Missouri compromise line (make California two states)

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New Idea

Stephen Douglas, turns squatter sovereignty into popular sovereignty (let people decide)

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condemned slavery and argued slavery should be contained and eventually extinguished.

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the compromise of 1850

Led by president Millard Fillmore in a desperate attempt to save the union. Passage of 5 new laws-New fugative slave law, allowed popular soverignty in Utah and New Mexico, abolished slave trade in Washington D.C, California enters as a free state, settled land disputes.

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The fugitive slave act

Federal marshals HAD to capture anyone suspected of being a runaway. Marshalls were given a bonus or promotion based on how many people they captured. Owners only needed a testimonial from a slave owner which can be easily faked to get people into slavery. 6 months in prison an 1000 dollar fine to anyone who helps a runaway.

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Uncle Toms Cabin

An in depth portrayal of slavery written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It sold around 300,000 copies in a year and 2 million in a decade. Very influential to people’s views on slavery.

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Election of 1852 and splinter parties

Whigs and democrats began to get less support and splinter parties are begin to form. Franklin Pierce=Democrat, Winfeild Scott=Whig and John Parker Hale=free soil

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The know nothing party

born of anti-catholic and anti-immigrant groups. Formed in 1849, and was first known as the secret order of the star spangled banner and was created in NYC. Wanted to mobilize members against alien menace of immigration and institute literacy tests for voting. Believed the real issue wasn’t slavery but immigration.

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Republican party

Formed in Ripon Wisconsin, an exclusively northern party. Was made up of Northern Whigs, Northern Democrats, Free-soilers, and Know-nothings. Others who opposed the kansas-nebraska act also joined the party. Was a crusade against slave power not just slave morality.

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

Nebraska and Kansas will be chosen slave or free based on popular sovereignty. The bill barely passes. The comprmise line of 1820 no longer exists. It took the sectionalization issue out of the hands of congress.

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Territorial Legislature

Antislavery _________ ________ is formed. They create a free state capital in Lawrence. The slave government is nationally recognized. There are two opposing governments in Kansas.

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border ruffians

pro slavery raiders who crossed the slave state of Missouri into Texas to sway to popular sovereignty vote. They were a key part of bleeding Kansas.

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Bleeding Kansas

Thousands of settlers came to Kansas in an attempt to make it a slave state. In the process, people began to arm themselves against the pro-slavery people who are coming. Two governments were formed and violent battles broke out. This lead to John Browns actions, the canning of Charles Sumner, etc.

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John Brown

He took hostages at Harpers ferry. He seized the armory and killed 18 people. He did this with the attempt to gain equality between whites and blacks. The goal was to get blacks weapons in order to free themselves. The raid was unsuccessful and he eventually was tried for murder and treason.

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Charles Sumner

He gave a 5 hour speech verbally attacking the south and criticizing Andrew Butler. Preston Brooks, Butler's second cousin, beat him with a cane 50+ times to the point where he was unconscious and had brain damage. The south saw him as their hero and sent him canes. It was the no turning back point on the road to the civil war.

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Election of 1856

James Buchanan was the democrat in the race(he wins and people HATE him), John C. Fremont was the republican, Millard Fillmore was the Whig/American party. Regional tensions are very present with north+south being different political parties.

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James Buchanan

people did not like him as a president and his poor choices did not help this public support. His response to secession was declaring that it was illegal but also that the federal government could not really stop them from leaving as they could not force them to stay in the union.

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Abraham Lincoln

a man who was born poor but eventually worked his way up by educating himself and moved into the political scene. He had bouts of depression that characterized certain parts of his life. He was ambitious in politics and would be the leading president during the civil war.

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Lincoln Douglas Debates

Lincoln, now a republican ran for senate in 1858 with the concern that states could have more power over choosing slavery(fearing that slavery would be everywhere). Lincoln and Douglas had 7 debates (Lincoln wanted even more) and eventually Douglass’s ideas would win him the seat. In the debates, douglas who was a white supremacists believed that lincoln had evolved views on equality and that the society in America was created to support white men.

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A house divided speech

In this speech, Lincoln predicted american society. He quoted a biblical adage that said that “a house divided against itself cannot stand” He said that either way, slavery would either have to exist everywhere or nowhere. People interpreting this speech as an attempt to remove slavery, but it was really a attempt to keep the union stable.

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Freeport Doctrine

said that a terretory was allowed to exclude slavery if they did not adopt laws to protect it. Northerns agreed with the bill and southerners did not. Created by douglas and even though it upset democrats, he was still elected into congress.

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Republican party platform 1860

Called for a non-extension of slavery (for the free-soilers), protective tariffs for the northern economy, no abridgment for rights of immigrants (upset the know-nothings) government aid to protect the pacific railroad and internal improvements moving west to gain industry and farmers. These view points helped them in the election of Lincoln and gain northern support.

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The crittenden compromise

One of the first attempts to save the union. Created by senator John J. Crittenden on December 18th 1860. It would extend the 36’30 line to california and would protect slavery. But, it proved to be too little too late as southern states already started to secede.

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Corwin Amendment

proposed amendment to the consitution passed by congress on march 2nd 1861. Prohibited any amendment to end slavery. It was too little too late once again. It was not ratified by the states (stopped by the civil war) and the confederate states of america were already established by this point.

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southerners who remained loyal to the union(boarder states) (Missouri, Kentucky, west Virginia (later), Delaware, Maryland)

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southerners who did not see Lincolns election as a direct threat. Secede only IF outwardly attacked by the north. (Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia)

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Lincolns election proved that republicanism was dead..SECEDE NOW. South Carolina was the first state to secede.

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The confederate states of America

established February 4th 1861. Started at 7 states and eventually would become 11. The capital was in Virginia(even though at first they had not seceded). The president was Jefferson Davis(who was unanimously elected) and he served a 6 year term. Constitution was very similar to that of the united states but slavery was protected and legalized and the states had more individual rights.

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Lincoln Inaugural address

In his address, he promised to safegaurd slavery where it already existed, but vowed to stop its expansion. He declared that the union was perpetual (the union is fixed) and that secession was illegal. He asserted that he would hold occupy and possess all federal property that was in the seceding states(trying to stop South Carolina from seizing the military base). His final messages was either to return to the union or face war.

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Fort Sumter

Before this, Lincoln had not done anything to take the fort or take action against the confederacy. Lincoln said that by april 12th if the confederacy did not surrender, he would take it by force. In the early morning after the ultimatum, CSA bombed FS for 34 hours before the union surrendered. There was only 1 casualty (a horse) as the attack was planned and people could get out. WAS THE POINT OF THE WAR THAT RALLIED SUPPORT ON BOTH SIDES.

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Strengths of the union

they had a population of 22 million (4mil of fighting age) in comparison to the South’s 9 million (1.5 mil of fighitng age with 4mil slaves). They north had 70% of the railroads, 80% of industry, 67% of edible agriculture, and 75% of financial institutions.

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northern strategy

Union needs to conquer the south to win. The answer was Winfeild Scott’s Anaconda plan. 1) blockade southern ports 2)split in Confederacy with Mississippi river (so take the Mississippi) 3) capture Richmond the capital.

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Southern strengths

the cause was independence which was a leading factor in getting soldiers. They had rich military history, trained soldiers and strong leadership. They also had short supply lines so they could get good quickly which was a short term advantage.

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Southern Strategy

  1. JUST DO NOT LOSE!!! 2)cotton diplomacy: force Britain to support their cause as they supply the cotton fro thier textile industry (this would not work and Britain would refuse).

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The battle of Bull run

The first battle occuring in July 1861 in Virginia, 25 miles from Washington D.C. It was a confederate victory. The significance was that the war would not end quickly or easily and the casualties were very high.

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Monitor v. Merrimack

CSS Merrimack was a confederate ship (a union ship that was captured and then fitted with iron siding renamed the virginia) which had the goal to break the union blockade. The USS Monitor was a union ship that was built to battle the CSS Merrimack. The two ships battled off the coast of Virginia at the battle of Hampton roads. March 1862. The battle changed the face of naval warfare forever as the ships became more defensible and naval warfare could be more intricate.

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On September 17th 1862. General Lee moved into Maryland. The plans were found by the union and in response, the union attacked Antietam. It was the bloodiest single day in American history with 23,000 dead or injured. Was the turning point for the union. Shows how war could happen anywhere as Antietam was farmland.

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total war

Lincoln mobilized all the union’s resources toward the war effort. (economic, political and cultural) The confederacy on the other hand was always in total war.

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confederacy instituted the first legally binding draft; all existing soldiers MUST serve for the duration, all men between ages 18-35 MUST serve.

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Habeas Corpus

suspending on both dies, allowed governments to arrest for any reason. Arrest without consideration to rights

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20 Negro law

If you have 20 slaves you can excuse yourself from service. For every consecutive 20 slaves you own you can pardon someone else. Was a way to get out of southern conscription.

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Draft riots in NY

northern conscription was also not popular. Mostly the poor were being drafted (so mostly immigrants) In July of 1863 mostly poor Irish rioted in New York against conscription as they felt like they shouldn’t have to fight in the war.

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Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln in his proclamation, declared that all slaves in states that are currently in rebellion were emancipated. It was an incentive to the slaves states to get them to stay in the union so they could keep slavery. Also tried to get the slaves to rebel against the confederacy. Also an attempt to get states to come back to the union.

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Robert E. Lee leads the confederate troops into North Pennsylvania with the intent of attacking Washington D.C to gain the capital. 70,000 confederate troops meet 90,000 union troops at Gettysburg. After 3 days of violent war, Lee’s army retreats back to Virginia. It was his last attempt to take DC. On July fourth, after the retreat, the union victory at Vicksburg secured control over the mississippi.

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Gettysburg Address

Lincoln addresses the many losses in the confederacy. He gives the speech as an attempt to move things forward. The main message was that ideals are worth dying for and that it is up to the living to carry on the work of those who died to protect thier ideals. The ideals of equality and freedom are the bedrock of the U.S nation.

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Factor 1 of victory-Morale in the South

motivation was not enough as most people in the south didn’t have slaves so why should they fight for something that they don’t even have. There are low supplies as the south didn’t have strong trade or finances. No one worked on farms and all of these factors led to desertion. Also, peace movements began in the south in an effort to reunite the country.

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Factor 2-Total War and U.S Grant

grant was appointed commander of the army in March 1864. He was the hero at Vicksburg which gained them the Mississippi. This victory led to the next goal of capturing Richmond and created the new goal of devastating the south through Sherman’s march to sea.

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factor 3-general Sherman in the south

battle of atlanta july 1864. Despite taking heavy casualties Shermans moved into atlanta which was the major industrial center of the south. At this same time, Lincoln was reelected and atlanta was destroyed.

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Factor 4-sherman’s march to sea

After burning Atlanta, Sherman took the 300 mile long 60 mile wide oath of destruction where he slautered cattle, destroyed crops, tore up railroad tracks and looted homes and businesses that showed how the union victory was inevitable.

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factor 5-fall of richmond

1864, Luincoln wins and choses a southern democrat as his vice president to get the south to come back. By march 1865 the union marches toward Richmond, Lee is overcome by Grant ad they meet at Appomattox court house. Lincoln was generous with out two conditions. The war is over and that the south rejoin the country.

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Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction

10% plan which was a proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Lincoln believed that the states NEVER seceded from the union. He pardoned all but the highest ranking military and civilian confederate officers. When 10% of the population in the 1860 election had taken oath of loyalty and reestablished a government, the state would be recognized. Pushed for the passage of the 13th amendment. His plan was lenient. Lincoln also formed Lincoln governments in different confederate states which were weak and depended on the the north for survival. White southerners did not see them as legitimate.

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Ironclad oath

created by radical republicans. States had to swear that they had: ‘never voluntarily borne arms against the united states, had voluntarily given no aid, continuance, counsel or encouragement to the rebellion.

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Wade-Davis Bill (1864)

the radical republican reaction to Lincoln’s plan. Required 50% of the 1860 voters to take the ironclad oath of allegiance. New state constitutions and to be developed, including a ban on slavery. Civilian and military leaders had their right to vote revoked. Lincoln does not sign the bill as it is coming up to an election year.

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Lincolns Assassination

April 14th 1865 Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at fords theater in Washington D.C 5 days after lee surrendered at Appomattox.

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Freedman Bureau 1865

began under Lincoln and continued under Johnson. Helped transform former slaves into freedom. Former abolitionists traveled to the south to assist in the transition.

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Freedman Schools

The greatest success of the Freedman bureau as now young freed children were able to obtain an education.

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13th amendment

ratified december 6th 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude EXCEPT WHEN BEING USED AS PUNISHMENT should not happen in the united states. Congress was given the power to enforce the article onto state legislatures. Mississippi was the last state to ratify the consitution in 2013.

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Andrew Johnson

the 17th president. An old-fashioned southern Jacksonian democrat with HEAVY states rights view point. Only senator to stay loyal to the union. Appointed military governor of TN by Lincoln. Chosen as the VP is 64’. He hated slave power but was sympathetic to the south. His actions caused him to be the first president to be impeached.

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Johnson’s plan

offered amnesty upon simple oath to all accept confederate civil and military officers with property over $20,000. He pardoned 13,500 southerners. In the new constitution states had to ratify the 13th amendment (while many still didn’t). Supported the establishment of black codes.

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Black codes

Purpose?-to attempt to continue slavery after the 13th amendment. Varied per state; labor contracts, could not rent or buy land, could not testify in court. Forced many blacks into sharecropping or to become tenant farmers.

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Congressional Plan

congress bars the newly elected southern congressional candidates. Joint committee on reconstruction was created. Feburary 1866, president vetoed the freedman’s bureau bill and in 1866 he also vetoed the civil rights acts (which would become the 14th amendment). Congress as a part of their plan passed both bills and over ruled the president.

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Radical Republicans

Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner. Believed that the southern states DID secede from the union and has to be readmitted. Believed that the southern states needed to be punished for the civil was. Freed slave should be citizens and universal male suffrage

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Military Reconstruction act

requiered new state consitutions to include black sufferage (15th amendment) and ratification of the 13th and 14th amendments. Restart reconstruction in the 10 southern states that refused to ratify the 14th amendment. Divide the 10 ‘reconstructed states into 5 military districts.

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14th amendment

Ratified by the states on July 9th 1868. Defined citizenship (birthright citizenship). Due process (5th amendment) was protected by the states. Equal protection clause. Provides a constitutional guarantee of equal protection under state and federal law. Kentucky was the last to ratify the amendment in 1976.

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Johnson’s impeachment

Johnson fired Stanton (secretary of war) in February 1868. Testing tenure of Office act passed despite his veto. The house impeached him on February 24th by a vote of 126-47. Was acquitted by ONE vote (fear of damaging checks and balances).

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Grant’s presidency

Grant president over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption known as Grantism. Credit mobilizer:railroad scandal. Whiskey ring ($1,000,000 in taxes were avoided by some distilleries). The ‘Indian ring’ Sec. of War took bribes for companies to trade with the native tribes. These rumors of corruption discredited Grant but he was still re-elected.

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15th amendment

ratified by the states on March 30th 1870. Gave all men the right to vote. Congress could force the amendment onto the states. Women’s rights groups were furious as they did not have to right to vote.

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Ku Klux Klan

a white suprenicist  group created by ex-confederates. The goal of the clan was to strike blows against the republican government of tennessee. They released a murderous campaign of terror while also trying to rule the government and blended with the democrat party. They buried freedman schools, attacked republican gatherings and attacked opposing political leaders. They terminated reconstruction programs and tried to put an end to the republican goals.

-One of the most violent and active white supremisist groups at the time whose goal was to end the rights of African Americans by hurting them physically and attempting to rule the government to remove thier rights. They were seen as terrorists and were attacked by the U.S military and as many as 2,000 were driven from tennessee.

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Specie Redemption Act

take greenbacks out of circulation and return back to the specie.

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civil rights act of 1875

Crime for any individual to deny full and equal use of public transportation and public places to any person. Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. The problem was that it was not enforced and black codes often superseded, so the abuse continued. No new civil rights act was accepted for 90 years.

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Legacy of reconstruction

While the 15th amendment gave all men the right to vote, states regulated voter registration. Southern states will pass laws and use intimidation to prevent African American’s from voting. No blacks will serve in congress from a southern state between 1901 and 1973. Jim Crow segregation will remain in effect in the south until the second Reconstruction in the 1950s and 60s.

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Elite Mexican ranchers who were important to the booming economy of leather (so hide) and soap (made from tallow).

-Important as many adopted thier manners, attitudes and catholic religion. They were able to aid the American migrants into forming a strong economy and ranching society. Their support made California a prime part of the country that American wanted to annex due to the rich economy that existed there.

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Plains Indians

-Semi-sedentary tribes who relied on the rich cattle numbers with buffalo hunting. Some were natives who Jackson had removed west. Each group had a different make up and importance within the native plains society. Horse based cultures had developed and corn and beans were a major food source. Some natives began to involve themselves more in the cattle trade. European guns and diseases thinned the amount of natives as they had more deadly weapons to kill others with and disease killed many.

-In response to the rich trade and demand that the natives had created with their buffalo hunting and selling it, the white Americans caught on and began to slaughter buffalo in the masses. Also, due to white demand, the natives began to kill more buffalo. Natives couldn’t really raise thier prices so buffalo hides seemed to be roughly affordable which prompted more buffalo killing.

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“Fifty-four forty or fight”

Created by Jame Polk, who vowed that if the U.S did not get land claims to the entire Oregon territory above the 54, 40 line he would fight the British for it.

-One of Polk's most influential claims that would eventually help him win his presidency as well as continue the idea of manifest destiny. The claim would eventually dissolve as Polk wanted to avoid being at war with both Britain and Mexico.

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Slave Power

A passage of 5 different laws known as the compromise. To appease the south, there was a fugitive slave act put in place, to apease the north, the legislation admitted california as a free state, resolved a boundary dispute between Mexico and texas, and abolished the slave trade (not slavery) in the district of columbia. Finally, the rest of the land gained in the Mexican American war was split into states/territories and invoked popular sovereignty.

-Helped to present national unity and gained the south's acceptance as they encouraged no union without slavery. Still, southerners thwarted secession. They encouraged people to start preparing for an ‘emergency’. Most still committed to the union as the compromise helped to keep slavery in the south.

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Gadsden Purchase, 1853

Franklin Pierce, an avid foreign expansionist bought the _______ ________ _ _ _ _ _ _ which is now a part of present day New Mexico and arizona. It was done to appease the southern expansionists who desired a plantation empire.

-opened the opportunity to build a transcontinental rail line from New Orleans to Los Angeles. Appeased the south and helped to benefit the northern economy where the goods were sent to.

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Ostend Manifesto

-After southern expansionists had urged Pierce to get Cuba, he began to make strides to get it. To help get Cuba as an american state and to benefit the slave trade there, he threated war with spain (who currently possed cuba) and supported private military excursions to cuba. Eventually, American diplomats in Europe created the ______ _________ _ _ _ _ _ _ which urged Pierce to get cuba.

-Northern democrats denounced the manifesto which stopped any planters from gaining cuba. One of Peirce’s failed expansion attempts showed the northerners' opposition to slavery and the expansion of it.

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Dred Scott, 1856

Decided the authority that congress had over slavery. Dred Scott, a long time slave, was moved with his owner to the free state of illinois. Scott claimed that being a resident in a free state made him free. The case went to court where 7 of the 9 justices declared that he was still a slave. The main argument was that black slaves were not U.S citizens so they had no right to sue in federal court. It said that slaves were property and no one could take them without due process of law. They also said that the federal government could not give to the territorial government any powers that they did not possess and one of those powers was the power to decide to prohibit or keep slavery.

-Set the president for future cases about slavery and assert that slaves didn’t really have any rights. It was also concluded that the federal government had no right to decide if slavery was unconstitutional. Added fuel to the raging constitutional fire.

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Secession Crisis

The union first collapsed in South Carolina, which people within the state had been demanding secession and now they were able to. By 1860, South Carolina had a unanimous vote to leave the union and other deep southern states followed.

-people attacked union supporters in the south. The confederate states of america were created through secession congregations which helped to allow the south to leave the union. Secession was declared illegal, but the states who had created their own constitution did not listen to that.

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Robert E. Lee

A colonel veteran who was recommended to Lincoln due to his power. He was a confederate general during the civil war. His training allowed for his army to inflict any deaths against the union. His attacks were described as ferocious. After these offenses in the battle of bull run and the few other subsequent battles, Lee turned to the offensive to show that they were stronger.

-His skill would not prove all mighty as a few mistakes on the confederacy’s part led to the union’s advantage. His command led to many confederate victories in the early part of the war.

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