AP Psych Unit One Test (module 1-8)

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  1. Socrates Plato

  • mind/body seperate

  • mind continue after death

  • knowledge is innate (born within)

  1. Aristotle

  • knowledge comes from observation

  • knowledge isn't innate

  • you need data

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74 Terms

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  1. Socrates Plato

  • mind/body seperate

  • mind continue after death

  • knowledge is innate (born within)

  1. Aristotle

  • knowledge comes from observation

  • knowledge isn't innate

  • you need data

Early Philosopher (Greeks)

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  1. Renee Decartes

  • proved that fluid in brain flows from nerve to muscle, causing movement

  • dissected animals

Early Philosophers (French)

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  1. John Locke

  • mind is blank slate at birth (TABULA RASA)

  1. Francis Bacon

  • founder of modern science

  • founded empiricism

Early Philosophers (British)

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knowledge comes from experience *francis bacon

Empiricism

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  • father of psychology

  • created first psych lab (set apart psych for philosophy)

  • experiment: 2 dif trials, subjects told to press the key when hearing sound of ball drop

William Wundt

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  • Wundt's student

  • STRUCTURALISM

  • INTROSPECTION

Edward Titchener

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studying elements of mind

Structuralism

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A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

  • what you think abt your own mental processes

  • unreliable

Introspection

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  • NATURAL SELECTION (traits that give advantage are selected natural for next generations)

  • influenced william james

Charles Darwin

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  • FUNCTIONALISM

  • introduced principles of psych

William James

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structures of consciousness must have a function

  • everything has purpose

  • nose smells, but why?

Functionalism

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  • memory researcher

  • denied psych PhD bc #sexism

  • first female president of APA

Mary Whiton Calkins

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  • first female to get phD in psych

  • book: Animal Mind

Maragaret Floy Washburn

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  • psych should be objective science

  • only study what u can see, not unseen mental processes

Behaviorism

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  1. B.F Skinner

  • worked w animals

  • organisms repeat positive outcomes

  • #BFFR, BFB (bffr, B.F Behaviorist)

  1. John B. Watson

  • little Albert study

  • psych only deals with observable events (rejected introspection)

Behaviorists

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*Unconscious effects behavior

  • developed PSYCHOANALYSIS

Sigmund Freud

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  • unconscious/childhood experiences affect behavior and mental processes

  • opposing behavioralism

Psychoanalysis/Freudian Psychology

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  • humans strive to reach full potential

  • personal growth

  • "third force" in psych

Humanistic Psychology

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Controversy about if genes or experiences make psychological traits (twin studies)

  1. Nature

  • behaviors/mental processes happen bc innate, bc you're born with it

  • socrates plato, rene decartes, charles darwin

  1. Nurture

  • behaviors/mental processes happen bc experience and environment

  • aristotle, john locke

Nature vs Nurture

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emotions, dreams, disorders, age of first step, remembering

Gender Differences

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  • study of human thriving (#thrivingnvibing)

  • goal: find out human strengths & strengthen ppl

Postivie Psychology

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*understanding behavior/mental processes from 3 main keypoints:

  1. Behavioral Perspective

  • how observed behaviors impact mental processes

  1. Biological Perspective

  • how biological/physiological processes impact mental processes

  • genes, hormones, hand sweating

  1. Cognitive Perspective

  • how interpretations of situations impact mental processes

  • thoughts, memories, problem solving

Biopsychosocial Approach

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study of mental processes (thinking, learning, remembering)

Cognitive Psychology

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study of brain activity linked with mental processes

  • how mind processes/retains info

Cognitive Neuroscience

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how natural selection helps survival of genes

Evolutionary Perspective

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how drive for personal growth impacts behavior/mental processes

Humanistic Perspective

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how unconscious drives/conflicts behavior and mental processes

Psychodynamic Perspective

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how behavior/thinking vary across situations and cultures

Social-Cultural Perspective

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Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review

  • testing effect: better memory after retrieving, instead of just re-reading

SQ3R Method

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Basic

  • aims to increase psychology's knowledge

Applied

  • uses psych to solve real world problems

Basic vs. Applied Psychology

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Clinical

  • treats disorders

  • PhD

  • therapy and conseling Psychiatrist

  • MD

  • prescribes drugs

Clinical Psychologists vs Psychiatrists

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believing you would've known, after finding out the outcome

Hindsight Bias

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thinking we know more than we do #gaslightingmyself

Overconfidence

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thinking you see a pattern just to make sense of it

Perceiving patterns in random events

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  1. Curiosity (wanna find truth)

  2. Skepticism (keeping us from accepting ideas w/o proof)

  3. Humility (admitting when wrong when proven by facts)

3 Elements of Scientific Attitude

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theory, hypothesis, testing, interpreting results

Scientific Method

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idea that organizes observation

Theory

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testable prediction that's implied by theory

Hypothesis

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exact procedures in study (important to REPLICATE)

Operational Definition

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doing procedures again (replication = confirmation)

Replication

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  1. case studies

  2. naturalistic observations

  3. survey

Descriptive Methods

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individual/group studied in depth to find out something new PROS

  • lots of quantitive data

  • gives direction for further study CONS

  • can't always be generalized

Case Study

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observing behavior in natural setting (watching animals in jungle) PROS

  • subjects more "normal" outside lab

  • data collecting doesn't disturb subjects CONS

  • independent variable not isolated

  • observations from researcher are subjective

Naturalistic Observation

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self reported behaviors PROS

  • glance at people's observations CONS

  • opinions not always true, can scew outcome

Survey

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flaw in sampling that makes it not representable

Sampling Bias

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sample that represents population because subjects have equal chance of inclusion (aka RANDOM)

Representative Sample

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A relationship between two things NOT CAUSATION

Correlation

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two variables increase/decrease together (people who eat more food for breakfast (rise), have more energy (rise))

Positive Correlation

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two variables where one increases, other decreases (as we get older (rise), we sleep less (fall))

Negative Correlation

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statical index of relationship between variables (shows how strongly they correlate) r = correlation

  • the closer r is to -1 or +1, the stronger the correlation

  • (-) and (+) just mean if it's a negative or positive correlation: -0.70 is a stronger correlation than +0.28

Correlation Coefficient

<p>Correlation Coefficient</p>
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represents values of two variables

  • slope shows that positive or negative correlation

  • the closer the "scatter"/dots are to the line, the stronger the correltion

Scatterplot

<p>Scatterplot</p>
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thinking there's a correlation, when there really isn't/isn't proof there is (wearing "lucky" jersey means team wins)

Illusory Correlation

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when the first measurement is extreme (super high or super low), and the second measurement is closer to the mean (goes back down to the average) Ex: doing horrible first apush test, then slowly getting to class average

Regression to the Mean

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  1. manipulate other factors

  2. hold control group (don't emphasize independent variable on them)

Establishing Cause & Effect

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assignment participants to groups by chance to minimize preexisting differences between two groups

  • helps eliminate confounding variable

Random Assignment

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experiment when participants don't know abt treatment

  • controls subject bias

Single Blind

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experiment when participants and researchers don't know who gets treatment

  • controls subject and experimenter bias

Double Blind

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experimental results caused by expectations alone

  • subjects think they're getting something, so act like that even though they really aren't

  • placebo = inert treatment (pill w/o med in it)

  • decaf coffee, fake mood drugs

Placebo Effect

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an unstated factor that influences results (random assignment helps prevent this)

Confounding Variable

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how much an experiment predicts what it's supposed to

Experimental Validity

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statistics that summarize the data collected in a study

Descriptive Statistics

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bar graph that shows frequency distribution

  • how often something occurs

Histogram

<p>Histogram</p>
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where data centrals around (main data points)

  1. MEAN

  • Average. add #'s, divide by number of #'s

  1. MEDIAN

  • Middle score. put #'s in order from high to low, then find middle

  1. MODE

  • Most frequent. find most popular number, can be multiple or none

MEAN NOT ALWAYS BEST bc super high/low numbers can skew mean higher or lower *median better

Central Tendency

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Positively Skewed

  • outliers on positive side (pulls mean higher) Negatively Skewed

  • outliers on negative side (pulls mean lower)

Skewed Distribution

<p>Skewed Distribution</p>
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different between highest and lowest value

  • helps with variation

Range

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how far away from mean/average

  • shows if scores packed together or dispersed

Standard Deviation

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bell shaped curve, most scores near the average, and less near extremes

  • 68% of scores, 1 standard deviation from mean

  • 95% of scores, 2 standard deviation from mean

  • 99% of scores, 3 standard deviation from mean

Normal Curve

<p>Normal Curve</p>
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data that lets people assume sample data is true for a population

Inferential Statistics

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Descriptive

  • describe data, measure central tendency

  • presenting, organizing, summarizing

Inferential

  • relationships between variables

  • predicting trends

Descriptive vs Inferential Statistics

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how likely it is that the result occurred by chance (p-value) p < 0.5, 95% likely result wasn't bc of chance

Statistical Significance

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  1. descriptive

  • observe/record behaviors

  1. correlational

  • natural occurring relationships

  1. Experimental

  • exploring cause and effect

Basic Research Methods

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How lab conditions in everyday life Finding: how good at detecting faint light in dark room Principal: how good at flying plane at night

Specific Finding & Theoretic Principals

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  • teach us about humans

  • have more simple systems

Why psychologists study animals

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protect human research participants

  1. Informed consent

  2. Protection from harm

  3. Right to withdrawal

  4. Confidentiality

  5. Debriefing (explaining)

  • DECEPTION = when true purpose isn't revealed

  • debriefing is when you let subjects know about the deception that occured

Ethical Guidelines

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