PSYC 1004 EXAM 4

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5 Levels of Listening (bottom to top)

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181 Terms

1

5 Levels of Listening (bottom to top)

Ignore, Pretend, Selective, Attentive, Empathic

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ABC (activator-behavior-consequence)

the three-term contingency of applied behavior science, specifying that stimulus events preceding behavior provide direction while the consequences following behavior provide motivation for the recurrence of that behavior

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AC4P coaching

interpersonal communication whereby one individual (the teacher) employs principles of humanistic behaviorism to benefit the observed behavior of another individual (the learner)

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AC4P Culture

an environmental context or setting where people interact daily on behalf of the health, safety, security and well-being of everyone else in the surroundings with a spirit of interdependence and self-transcendence

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AC4P Movement

principle-centered activities of individuals on a mission to increase the large-scale occurrence of AC4P behaviors throughout organizations, schools, homes, and communities at large

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Accountability system

an extrinsic contingency or intervention that motivates people to perform certain behavior in order to obtain a positive consequence or avoid a negative consequence

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Acronym of SAPS

See an AC4P behavior, Act to reward the AC4P behavior, ask the wristband recipient to Pass on the wristband to reward another person's AC4P behavior, and Share the positive AC4P interaction at the ac4p.org site

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Activator

an environmental event (e.g., direction from a sign or individual) implemented to influence the occurrence of a particular behavior

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Actively Caring

the combination of action and compassion, resulting in behavior performed on behalf of the safety, health, and/or well-being of one or more other persons

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10

Actively Caring for People (AC4P)

the application of behavioral science and select principles from humanism in order to increase the frequency and improve the quality of behavior that benefits human health, safety, security, and/or welfare-referred to as humanistic behaviorism

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Affiliation

Connecting with others you identify with in some way

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Altruism

Helping others without expecting a tangible, social, or psychological reward

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Applied behavioral science (ABS)

application of research-based principles derived from experimental and applied behavior analysis to increase the occurrence of desirable behaviors, and decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors

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Attitudes

evaluative responses to things based on beliefs about the attributes of that thing

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Attraction

Feeling interested or drawn to another person as a result of the individual's characteristics (i.e., physical, intellectual, or emotional) or social standing (i.e., popularity, power, or affiliation)

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Attribution

An assumption of why a person is acting a certain way

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Behavior-based feedback

interpersonal communication following the occurrence of a behavior that informs the performer what s/he did correctly (supportive feedback) and/or incorrectly (corrective feedback)

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Behavioral Choice

Doing something differently in order to reduce the use of environmental resources

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Belongingness

perceived mutual social support or interdependency among others-friends, colleagues, or even strangers

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Biophilia

an inherited tendency to form an emotional connection with living organisms, including plants, animals, and ecosystems

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21

Brother's/Sister's keeper culture

an environmental setting (e.g., workplace, school or home) in which all participants feel empowered and self-motivated to routinely perform AC4P behavior on behalf of the health, safety, and well-being of everyone else in that setting

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Bystander Effect

When a group of people are called to action a diffusion of responsibility occurs and no one acts due to the belief that others will

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Central Route

One of two paths to changing an attitude; this route of attitude change attempts to intervene on core beliefs (e.g., personal values or other strongly held ideas)

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Choice

the perception for having more than one option with regard to accomplishing a particular task or action plan

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COACH Acronym

Care, Observe, Analyze, Communicate, Help

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Cognitive Dissonance

Tension or discomfort when an individual's attitudes and beliefs are not aligned or consistent

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Cognitive Load

The notion that people can only process so much information at once, given their capabilities and the amount/intensity of the stimuli around them

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Cognitive Misers

they try to use as little processing power possible to make decisions, typically by heavy reliance on schemas to navigate their environment

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Commons dilemma

refers to a situation in which individuals must curtail their use of a collective resource or risk the irreversible depletion of that resource

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Community

the perception of having interdependent social or group support regarding the accomplishment of a certain challenge or assignment

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Competence

the perception or belief that an individual has the knowledge, skill, and ability to accomplish a certain task effectively

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Consequence

an environmental event (positive or negative) that naturally occurs (i.e., intrinsic) after a behavior is added to the situation (i.e. extrinsic) to influence a certain behavior, which may or may not influence the frequency or form of the preceding behavior

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Conservation Psychology

psychology directed towards understanding and promoting a healthy relationship between humans and nature (Also called sustainability psychology, psychology of sustainability, or green psychology)

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Consistency

The pressure we feel to behave in ways that are in concert with our attitudes and beliefs, or to behave in ways we know others expect us to behave

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Corrective feedback

behavior-based information given to an individual after observation of an undesirable or less-than-optimal behavior, often manifested in a one-on-one coaching interaction

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Counter-control

behavior contrary to a directive, rule, or regulation, performed to demonstrate individualism or a sense of personal freedom

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Curtailment Behavior

refers to a reduction of some behavior that uses environmental resources

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38

Darryl Ben

derived the notion of self-perception theory

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Deindividuation

A loss of individual identity within a group of people, which can lead to a disconnection with personal values and uncharacteristic behavior

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Denial

a coping mechanism, allowing people to continue to function rather than become immobilized by fear or anxiety

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Descriptive Norms

describes what people actually do

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Descriptive norms

refer to the perception of what is. Or, in other words, perceptions about how people do in fact behave. Example: If you think that most people engage in tax fraud, that would be a descriptive norm.

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Diffusion of Responsibility

When individual responsibilities for a task within a group are unclear, and the success or failure of that group cannot be connected to the performance of any particular person

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Discipline

a behavior-based intervention designed to teach and/or motivate an individual to perform a particular target behavior in a certain way

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Discretionary behavior

desirable behavior that was not required by an extrinsic accountability system-presumed to be self-directed and self-motivated

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46

Discrimination

Negative action stemming from a stereotype

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Door-in-the-Face

Making a large, often irrational, request in order to make the smaller request that follows seem much more reasonable

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48

Education

teaching one or more persons awareness, theory, or procedures related to a certain task or the circumstances related to that task

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Emotion

a potent and potentially long-term reaction to a person or situation that can motivate self-directed behavior

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50

Empathic AC4P listening Techniques

Repeat, Rephrase, Ratify, Reflect

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Empathic listening

the highest level of interpersonal listening whereby the listener attempts to identify with and understand the speaker's feelings, attitude, motives, and behavior, as well as the circumstances that influenced relevant person-states and behavior

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52

Empathy

attempting to identify with and understand another individual's circumstances that influence his/her attitude, feelings, motives, and behavior

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53

Empathy Nudge

Something that causes you to feel empathic which in turns makes you more likely to perform a desired behavior

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54

Empowerment

an individual's belief or confidence that s/he can master a particular assignment or accomplish a certain task-determined by answering "Yes" to three questions: Can I do it? Will it Work? Is it Worth it?

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55

Environmental Psychology

focused on the physical environment and the ways in which people perceive, respond to, and are affected by it

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Environmental Spillover effect

engaging in a single sustainable behavior might encourage an individual to behavior in more sustainable ways

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Environmentally responsible behaviors

Environmental activism, Nonactivist public behavior, private-sphere behavior (includes curtailment, technology & behavior choice)

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Failure avoider

an individual who performs a certain behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence

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59

Feedback

information about one's own behavior

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60

Feedback

information following performance of a behavior that might influence the frequency and/or form of that preceding behavior by supporting or correcting it

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Feedforward

information preceding the performance of a behavior (e.g., directions, expectations, and mandates) that might influence the frequency and/or the form of that behavior

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62

Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)

First explored cognitive dissonance. They showed that people unconsciously change their attitudes when induced into behaviors inconsistent with their self-view.

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63

Five Factors of interviewer's illusion

  1. Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation

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  1. Interviewer's preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewee's responses

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  1. Interviewers judge people relative to those interviewed just before and after them

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  1. Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected

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  1. Interviews disclose the interviewee's good intentions, which are less revealing than habitual behaviors.

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Flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

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Foot-in-the-Door

Obtaining a small commitment in order to achieve a larger request later

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70

Framing

refers to the way in which a particular choice is presented in a message

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71

Frustration-aggression hypothesis

created by Dollard and colleagues. They believed that aggressive behavior was always preceded by an emotional state of frustration

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72

Fundamental Attribution Error

Attributing a person's behavior to what we assume to be his/her personality rather than factors outside of that individual (e.g., the situation)

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Goal setting

the systematic process of defining a behavior-focused SMARTS goal

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74

Group-Serving Bias

Accepting positive aspects of our in-group despite evidence that contradicts these beliefs

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75

Groupthink

The tendency for group members to agree, resulting in conformity from individuals within that group who may hold a different view

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76

Halo Effect

The tendency to make assumptions about a person based on a single positive characteristic. This is best understood not in a religious sense (e.g., "good" or angelic) but in terms of light - a "halo" radiating from a single source of life, like the sun

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77

Halo Error

Performance appraisal bias that occurs when one's overall evaluation of an employee, or of a personal trait such as their friendliness, biases ratings of their specific work-related behaviors (like reliability)

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Homogeneity Effect

The assumption that members of a particular out-group are "homogenous," or very similar to each other on particular characteristics

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Hostile attribution bias

the tendency to interpret ambiguous or neutral behaviors of others are intentionally antagonistic

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80

Human Factors Psychologists

work with designers and engineers to tailor appliances, machines, and work settings to our natural perceptions and inclinations.

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Human Factors Psychology

a field of psychology allied with I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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Humanism

the appreciation of empathy, diversity, compassion, and human dignity-a sincere concern for human welfare and well-being

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Humanistic behaviorism

making evidence-based interventions from applied behavioral science (ABS) more effective by practicing empathy and enhancing such person-states as self-esteem, self-efficacy, belongingness, personal control, and optimism

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84

Identity

an important antecedent of behavioral choices. The environmental type results from experience over time in a social context that encouraged it.

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85

Idiosyncrasy credits

refer to building up enough positive social equity (credits) that disagreement doesn't overly strain a relationship

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Impression Management

Actively managing the way you believe others perceive you (e.g., buying clothes you cannot afford to convey an appearance of wealth)

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In-Group

A group with which an individual is affiliated

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In-Group Favoritism

Believing our in-group is better than certain out-groups, and benefitting that in-group through thoughts and/or actions

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Incentives

encourage sustainable behavior by rewarding people for making the pro-environmental choice

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Independence

an individualistic viewpoint or mindset that sets the occasion for self-focused behavior ("I can do this myself"), and inhibits other-focused behavior ("I don't need your help")

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Industrial-Organizational Psychology (I/O)

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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Ingratiation

A conscious effort to get others to like us

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Injunctive Norms

describe socially preferred actions

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Injunctive norms

refer to the perception of what ought to be, or as you state, perceptions of what is approved or disapproved by others. Example: If you think that other people would consider tax fraud as something that is morally wrong, you would perceive an injunctive norm.

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95

Interdependence

a collectivistic we-need-each-other viewpoint or mindset that sets the occasion for AC4P behavior

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Interdependence

a collectivistic, we-need-each-other viewpoint or mindset that sets the occasion for AC4P behavior

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Intergroup Bias

The tendency to favor an in-group (with which we identify) and undervalue out-groups (those with which we do not identify)

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Intergroup Contact Theory

A theory that states prejudice is based on a lack of , and more contact between groups will lead to greater understanding and less prejudice

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Internal factors affecting behavior

values, knowledge, emotion, self-efficacy, identity

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Intervention

an external or extrinsic program or process implemented to influence the quantity or quality of one or more target behaviors

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