LING 2P51 Final Exam

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128 Terms

1

perceptual domain

  • using your knowledge to interpret and understand how language is processed and produced

  • knowing info surrounding how speech sounds are made as well as knowing info about certain branches of linguistics that are relevant

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informational domain

  • knowledge based

  • take info we know and use and perceive it in a way where we can assess others and understand speech

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3

24 contexts in which perceptual skills are needed in speech evaluation/ assessments

knowt flashcard image
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4

homo sapiens

only tetrapod known to speak

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tetrapods

vertebrate animals having four feet, legs or leglike appendages

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why do we not know when the first larynges and vocal folds evolved

soft tissues cannot fossilize (ex. brain and vocal tract)

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brain size and cognition

brain size is a poor predictor for animals cognitive capabilities

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8

Which bone of the larynx can be fossilized?

Hyoid bone

  • said to be almost indistinguishable form that of the the modern human

  • possible relevance to speech

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9

Which ancestor is said to of possibly spoken?

Neanderthals

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10

Chimpanzee vs human brain growth at birth

  • Chimpanzee brain growth slows at birth

  • Human brains continue to grow rapidly

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11

source

vocal folds vibration (larynx)

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filter

the vocal tract that changes in shape and size, thereby modifying the sound

  • allows some frequencies to pass through while suppressing others

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harmonics

range of components at other frequencies

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14

F0 fundamental frequency

  • basic rate of vocal folds during voiced speech

  • perceived as vocal pitch (measured in hertz)

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15

humans lack ____ that exist in other primates

large air sacs

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formants are a result of

… resonance

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resonance

tendency of things to oscillate in response to sound

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F1

formant 1 (lowest)

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F2

formant 2 (higher)

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large air sacs

  • play a role in nonhuman vocalizations

  • absence may help humans speech production mechanisms work more effectively

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humans have a longer ___

supra laryngeal vocal tract (SLVT)

  • due to the larynx being much lower

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dolphin communication

  • evidence of language like behaviours

  • have their own distinct whistle

  • developed a way of naming themselves for social purposes

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4 levels of linguistic complexity

  1. isolation

  2. word

  3. sentences

  4. continuous/ spontaneous speech

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2 levels of response complexity

  1. single sound in each word

  2. multiple sounds in each word

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Phonetic transcription

represents exactly what a child says

  • broad or narrow

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2 way scoring

correct or incorrect

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4 wrong categories

  1. deletion/ omission

  2. substitution

  3. distortion

  4. addition

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3 levels of system complexity

  • 2 way scoring

  • 5 way scoring

  • phonetic transcription

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5 way scoring

1 correct category, 4 wrong categories

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How do we explain the use of speech in humans but not other extant primates?

  • vocal anatomy: position of the larynx (hyoid bone)

  • brain: structure and capabilities, vocal mimetic abilities

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31

other animals make sounds for…

  • defense

  • competition for food

  • mating

  • other social purposes (bonding, sharing)

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parallel evolution

vocal sound making developed in 2 parallel, independent ways

  1. mammals - primates - humans

  2. reptiles - birds

indicates vocal sound making has a survival value for organisms

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sryinx

voice box of birds

  • consists of membranes that vibrate

  • sits and the junction of the bronchi

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language general perception

  • infants are born with the ability to distinguish most of the contrasts of the worlds languages

  • adults have difficulty with unfamiliar sound contrast

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categorical change procedure

  • Adults sit in a sound attenuated booth

  • Hears pa pa pa ba ba

  • Press button when sound changes

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language specific perception

  • Capabilities change as we get older, contrasting sounds that do not occur in our native languages may no longer be distinguishable

  • Change occurs at 6-12 months

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why does language perception change from general to specific?

there is no reason to distinguish between sounds that do not cause phonemic differences in your language

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head turning procedure

  • Auditory stimuli: ba ba ba pa pa

  • When auditory stimuli changes, baby is coerced to turn their head towards a toy, flashing light, etc.

  • Eventually they do not use the toy/light when the sound changes

  • if baby still turns their head we can conclude the child can perceive the difference

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when does hearing develop

in utero

  • babies can recognize their mothers voices, test this by listening to heart rate

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4 types of cries

  1. quick rise, slow fall

  2. slow rise, quick fall

  3. symmetrical rise and fall

  4. steady

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4 articulation errors

  1. deletion

  2. insertion

  3. substitution

  4. distortion

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effects of aging on voice

Male: F0 gets lower with age

Female: F0 gets lower at age 50 compared to younger women

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what makes you sound like you

  1. Organic factors (length/mass of vocal folds, size/shape of vocal tract, biological endowment)

  2. Learned factors (social, how SLVT is used for articulation, dialect)

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phonation types

  • Breathing (no phonation)

  • Breathy voice

  • Whispering

  • Normal voicing

  • Creaky voice

  • Falsetto

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accent

distance from target (“normal” Canadian accent)

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comprehensibility

  • How much effort a listener puts into understanding someone (semantically)

  • The processing ability of the meaning

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intelligibility

  • Refers to comprehension and understandability

  • Can the listener understand what the speaker is saying

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acceptability

making someone speak with an acceptable accent

  • controversial topic

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factors that influence L2 production

  1. l1 influence

  2. experience

  3. attention

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instrumental motivation

motivation because you need the skill for work

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integrative motivation

motivation because you need the skill to socialize

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52

does orthography play a role in L2 learning

  • yes

  • may bias or distort perception/ attention

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attention during L2 learning

  • Distractions shift attention away from acoustic signals and learning opportunities are lost

  • cannot multitask (brain is just switching back and forth between tasks)

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categories of speech disorders

  • voice disorders (larynx)

  • articulation disorders (tongue control)

  • phonological disorders

  • fluency disorders (stuttering)

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causes of speech disorders

  • congenital malformation (born)

  • disease

  • accidents/ injury (TBI, stroke, vocal overuse)

  • surgery (removal)

  • behaviour related problems (autism)

  • idiopathic causes (unexplainable)

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stuttering

the involuntary repetition, interruption, and prolongation of speech sounds and syllables, which the individual struggles to end

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stuttering etiology

Poorly understood and controversial

  • neurophysiology dysfunction that disrupts the timing needed for speech

  • genetic basis: occurs more commonly in identical twins (77%) than fraternal (23%)

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lexical filled pauses

like, so, I think

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non lexical filled pauses

um, er, uh

  • um: you know what you want to say but trying to articulate it properly

  • uh: you don't know what your talking about/wanting to say

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fluent speech is characterized by

  • smooth, comfortable tempo

  • Appropriate pausing

  • Few false starts, repairs, and repetitions

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cluttering

  • Rapid or irregular speaking rage with long breaks and spurts of speech

  • Poorly planned utterances; speaker is often unaware of impairment

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developmental dysfluency

repetitions of whole words

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pathological dysfluency

repetitions of word parts and prolongations of sounds

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stuttering diagnosis

  • Many children stutter; most but not all recover

  • Important to distinguish between normal developmental dysfluency and pathological dysfluency

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stuttering treatment

  • Timed syllabic speech

  • Shadowing

  • Delayed auditory feedback

  • Other systematic therapies

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66

which came first speech or writing

speech

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hominin

humans and human like ancestors

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central processes of speech

Events associated with the central nervous system that are involved in perception and production of utterances

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peripheral processes of speech

Events associated with structures outside the central nervous system (ie. ears) that are involved in the perception and production of utterances

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70

orthography

a writing system for representing language

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supralaryngeal vocal tract (SLVT)

Structures above the larynx used ins perch production (pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities)

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dialect

Language variety associated with a particular community of speakers

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vocal timbre

Features of the voice that distinguish it from other voices (ie. soprano, tenor)

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neuroplasticity

Capability of neural pathways of the brain to develop and reorganize, particularly as a result of new learning or experience

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high amplitude sucking (HAS)

Tendency for infancy to suck a pacifier more rapidly when exposed to new auditory stimuli

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76

dysarthria

motoric dysfunction that impairs speech in a variety of ways

  • sounds are repeated and prolonged

  • short breathy voice

  • strained voice

  • audible inspiration

  • variable rate with short rushes of speech

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77

dysarthria treatment

  • breathing capacity and breath control

  • control over loudness and pitch

  • velo-pharyngeal control

  • management of speech rate

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78

Broca’s aphasia

  • non fluent aphasia

  • speech production is difficult

  • individual words or short phrases

  • function words omitted

  • language comprehension usually good

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79

Wernicke’s aphasia

  • fluent aphasia

  • no trouble producing long sentences

  • utterances make no sense

  • unnecessary or made up words

  • difficulty understanding the speech of others = receptive aphasia

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aphasia treatment

  • melodic intonation therapy

  • reading

  • syntax

  • word-finding

  • writing

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81

language impairment based treatment

diverse range of treatments for aphasia patients based on the individuals specific needs and difficulties

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82

cleft palate

  • Disturbance in palate/ lip development during the early part of gestation

  • Runs in families

  • Certain risk factors in mother

    • Smoking, diabetes, substance use, certain medications

  • Often non-syndromic (an isolated issue for the child)

  • can have an increased risk of ear infections

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cleft palate treatment

  • surgery followed by therapy

SLP therapy

  • Infants: feeding and swallowing assessment

  • Toddlers and older children: assessment therapy for

    • VPI: velopharyngeal insufficiency (causes hypernasality)

    • Other articulations

    • Phonation difficulties

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84

lisp

popular term that is improperly used to refer to a number of different articulations

  • ex. refer to problems producing /s/ and /z/

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laryngectomy

removal of larynx (complete or partial) due to cancer, GE reflux, injury, other diseases

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86

stoma

opening in throat after a procedure

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87

electro-larynx

  • a device that you hold up to your neck (larynx)

  • when you push a button on the device, it produces a vibration that is transferred through the skin to the throat

  • you then articulate the sound with your SLVT

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in-dwelling prosthesis

a valve that allows you to make sounds by pushing air from your lungs through the valve and up into your mouth to be articulated

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89

Aspects of speech that identify someone as a second language speaker

  • accent is a normal aspect of L2 acquisition

  • accents are highly noticeable

  • accents can have both positive and negative effects on communication

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aspects of a foreign accent

  • Segmental (individual consonants, vowels)

  • Suprasegmental (stress, rhythm, intonation)

  • Voice quality and use of SLVT

    • Non-nativelike use of pitch, nasality, retroflection of tongue

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negative effects of foreign accents on communication

  • negative social evaluation that happens in the mind of the listener that may have a negative view of foreigners (not accent itself)

  • communication difficulties which result in loss of speaker intelligibility (frustrating and embarrassing)

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positive effects of foreign accents on communication

  • Conversational adjustments from interlocutors = “foreigner talk”

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caregiver speech

  • simplified vocabulary and syntax

  • clearer enunciation with less reduction

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major goal of second language instruction

to help learners communicate effectively with their peers in their L2

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perceptual dimensions for L2 speech evaluation

  • accentedness (perceived difference)

  • comprehensibility (listener effort)

  • intelligibility (how much is understood)

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accentedness

degree of difference from the target speech sounds

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97

high functional load

  • sounds that distinguish a large number of words from other words

  • many minimal pairs

  • high-frequency words

  • the focus should be on learning the distinctions between these sounds and words

  • ex. l and r (rock vs. lock/ write vs. light)

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low functional load

  • sounds that distinguish relatively fewer words from other words

  • few minimal pairs

  • uncommon words

  • ex. th and f (three vs free/ think vs. fink/ threw vs. frew)

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99

individual variability (problem with pronunciation instruction in the classroom)

  • learners often do not share the same areas of difficulty EVEN when they have the same L1

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100

zoom principle

  • learning more broad and then becoming more narrow

  • start with general speaking patterns and suprasegmentals

  • vowels are more important than consonants

  • functional load

    • wouldn’t focus on the sounds because they aren’t as important as l and r

    • focus on common vowels (not vowel in book /ʊ/)

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