ap psych- unit 5: cognitive psychology

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Memory

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105 Terms

1

Memory

the persistence of learning over time through encoding, storage, and retrieval of information (Myers 318)

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2

Encoding

the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning (319)

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3

Storage

the process of retaining encoded information over time (319)

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4

Retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage (319)

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5

Parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (Serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving (319)

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6

Effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort (320)

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7

Shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words (324)

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8

Deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention (325)

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9

Hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage (330)

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10

Selective attention

the focussing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus (152)

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11

Automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings (320)

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12

Overlearning

additional rehearsal of information leads to increased retention

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13

Rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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14

Semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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15

Mnemonic effect

memory aids, especially those technique that use vivid imagery and organizational devices (323)

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16

Method of loci

a mnemonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations

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17

Self-reference effect

the tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself

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18

Chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occcurs automatically (323)

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19

Basal ganglia

it receives messages from the motor cortex but does not send back information to the cortex for conscious awareness of procedural memory

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20

Peg-word system

a mnemonic in which the items in a list to be remembered are associated with the sequential items in a memorized jingle and then the list is retrieved by going through the jingle and retrieving the associated items.

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21

Sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system (319)

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22

Working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (320)

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23

Serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list (337)

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24

Context effect

the tendency to recover information more easily when the retrieval occurs in the same setting as the original learning of the information

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25

Mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood (337)

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26

Testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning (324)

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27

Spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice (324)

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28

Permastore memory

long-term memories that are especially resistant to forgetting and are likely to last a lifetime

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29

State-dependent memory

The theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.

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30

Retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information (345)

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31

Proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information (345)

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32

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories (346)

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33

Anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories (342)

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34

Short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten (319)

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35

Retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past (342)

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36

Misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event (347)

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37

Source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have heard, heard about, read about, or imagined. Also called source misattribution. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories (349)

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38

Déjà vu

that eerie sense that 'I've experienced this before.' Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience (349)

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39

Reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

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40

Long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences (319)

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41

Iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second (322)

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42

Flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event (332)

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43

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory (333)

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44

Echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds (322)

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45

Implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called nondeclarative memory (320)

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46

Explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." Also called declarative memory (320)

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47

Episodic memory

A category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences.

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48

Recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test (334)

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49

Recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test (334)

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50

Relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again (334)

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51

Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory (336)

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52

Semantic memory

a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world

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53

Cognitive abilities

capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving

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54

Convergent thinking

narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution (357)

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55

Divergent thinking

expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions) (357)

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56

Overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments (365)

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57

Belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited (367)

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58

Framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments (368)

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59

Concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people (356)

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60

Morpheme

in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) (373)

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61

Phoneme

in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit (373)

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62

Syntax

The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

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63

Aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding) (377)

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64

Grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. IN a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into gramatically sensible sentences (#73)

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65

Linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think (379)

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66

Algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier--but also more error-prone--use of heuristics (361)

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67

Linguistic influence

the idea that language influences thought

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68

Heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms (361)

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69

Intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning (363)

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70

Representative heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes (364)

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71

Insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions (361)

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72

Availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common (364)

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73

Mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past (362)

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74

Confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence (362)

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75

Functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

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76

Prototype

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin) (356)

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77

Fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved (560)

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78

Intelligence

the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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79

General intelligence

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

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80

Savant Syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

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81

Factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.

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82

Grit

passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals

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83

Emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

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84

Achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

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85

Aptitude test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

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86

Intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

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87

Mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

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88

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests

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89

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ca) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

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90

Standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

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91

Reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

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92

Stanford Binet

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.

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93

Validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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94

Normal curve

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

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95

Predictive validity

The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.

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96

Content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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97

Cohort

a group of people from a given time period

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98

Crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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99

Flynn effect

the worldwide phenomenon that shows intelligence test performance has been increasing over the years

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100

Fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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