apush terms #2 (basically done)

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Bank of the United States


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US History

AP United States History


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Bank of the United States

  • charter in 1791

  • Alexander Hamilton pushed for a way to centralize money and create stable currency

  • opposed by anti-federalist/democratic republics

  • deal: federalists could set up banks so long as US capital was along the potomac, placing a lot of political power in an area with a lot of demreps

Bill of Rights

  • the only way to convince antifederalists/demreps to support constitution -1791

  • 10 original rights: #1: freedom of press, religion, assembly #2: write for either individual or militia to bear arms #3: soldiers can't stay in ur home #4: no searches w/o #5: no double jeapordy #6: right to fair/speedy trial #7: any trial worth more than $20 is derserving of jury #8: no cruel/unusual punishment, no excessively high bails #9: rights not in BoR are still rights #10: any power not explicitly given to national gov is for the states

Whiskey Rebellion

  • 1791-94

  • rebellion against Hamilton's excise tax, one of four parts of his four pt plan

  • distilling wheat into whiskey was the cheapest way for farmers to store it, these taxes hit these farmers

  • george washington quelled it using militia force

  • demreps were now even more pissed at the feds bc not only were they hurting farmers, they were using strong federal force to trample said farmers down


  • political party

  • notable members: Alexander Hamilton (figurehead), John Jay, John Adams

  • aristocrats who were wary of democracy

  • wanted manufacturing empire that looked like and was allies with Britain

  • strong federal government

  • loose interpretation of constitution (flexibility clause)

  • faded away after Adams presidency

  • more around new england region

Anti Federalists

  • political party turned into democratic-republicans/republicans

  • notable members: thomas jefferson (figurehead), patrick henry

  • supported French Rev, esp in early stages, wanted to honor alliance w france

  • wanted agrarian society with small military (looking inward)

  • strict interpretation of constitution

  • more around chesapeake region (basically where the farmers were)

  • weary of too much federal gov, wanted smaller, localized gov/econ

Judiciary Act of 1789

  • est. federal justice system

    • supreme court w/chief justice and five associates

    • federal district and circuit courts

    • office of attorney general

Farewell Address

  • washington trying to promote isolationism and warning against the dangers of political parties

  • should only interact w other countries on an impersonal, economic level

    • political alliances were dangerous and could lead to high strung emotions and shld only b made in extraordinary situations

  • 1796 Washington's departure speech

    • him leaving after 2 terms set standard that wasn't broken until FDR then codified into law

  • written mostly by a hamilton

  • after presidency logical successor was hamilton but he was unpopular bc of affair, went to John Adams instead

XYZ Affair

  • 1797-98

  • john adams sent envoys to france for diplomatic meeting with Talleyrand since France was also impressing bc they were pissed off of by jays treaty bc they thought it signaled angloamerican

  • intercepted by 3 agents (anonymous so x, y, z) who said they needed to pay an exorbinant fee to talk w him

  • "millions on defense

  • american public got pissed since they felt disrespected and so tallyrand was like "oops sorry" and let them meet up

  • there were calls for adams to go to war w france but he chose not to

    • while this was likely the smarter option considering america didn't really have any resources, it did cost him some popularity

Citizen Genet

  • 1793-1794

  • french republic representative who was pissed off by the neutrality proclamation

  • landed in south carolina, where he was met with encouragement from demreps for his anger

  • recruited unauthorized armies to invade spanish florida, lousiana, and britsh canada - even madison and jefferson thought he was too extreme

  • washignton demanded his withdrawal after threatening to appeal over the head of "old washington," and got replaced with someone less extreme


  • foreign minister for france during 1790s

  • after xyz affair, sent a roundabout policy by the means of promising america could meet up with france if they sent a different representative

  • convinced napoleon to try to conquer

  • signed secret treaty taking louisiana

Proclamation of Neutrality

  • 1793

  • in response to FR, official statement that america was not going to get involved with it or any foreign conflict

  • actually were better able to help france through that position of neutrality because there was no way US had a strong enough military to be significant help militarily, but from a neutral position america could provide france with foodstuffs

Pinckney's treaty

  • 1795

  • spanish treaty

  • spain believed jay's treaty had been an alliance btwn england and america and they wanted to step in to reassert their alliance w america and rivalry

  • gave right of deposit at New Orleans, great for trade

  • the only good thing about the jay's treaty and it was completely by accident

Alien and Sedition Acts

  • 1798

  • capitilized on the anti-french hysteria after xyz affair

  • federalists passed through two laws through congress during john adam's presidency

  • sunset clause

  • alien: made it so immigrants cldn't be a us citizen until after 14 yrs of stay instead of 5

  • sedition: no free speech basically (cldnt say shit about the current gov)

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

  • 1798

  • virginia: james madison

  • kentucky: thomas jefferson

  • passed secret resolutions against the alien and sedition acts in these respective states

    • thought that if the federalists could take away these rights (sedition act violated 1st amend), they had potential to take other rights away too

John Marshall

  • not a midnight judge, but appointed chief justice around that time

  • thomas jefferson's cousin

  • envoys during xyz

  • extremely federalist and committed to having a federalist court

  • had a significant hand in giving the supreme court its power of judicial review - basically orchaestrated marbury vs madison

    • when marbury sued after learning his position was being benched marshall dismissed it on the basis of it not being his constitutionally assigned role to judge this case, thus opening up a court case on what exactly the role of the supreme court should be

Marbury v. Madison

  • court case btwn "midnight judge" william marbury and james madison

  • gave supreme court power of judicial review

  • determined who had final authority on determining the meaning of the constitution, of which demreps said was a power of a state and opposed judicial review

  • marbury demanded writ mandamus bc supreme court

  • cldnt rule in favor bc power showdown

  • part of marbury used was unconstitutional

  • gave judicial review

  • 1803

  • gave the supreme court tremedous power and a tangible, substantial role to play in american politics

Chesapeake incident

  • 1807

  • one of the biggest examples of british impressment at the time

  • british frigate overhauled the US frigate the Chesapeake because they thought there were four british desserters

  • british captain demanded surrender of these four supposed desserters, and american commander stood his group

  • british warship fired at the americans, leave 3 dead 18 wounded

  • riled up american public

"Midnight judges"

  • last thing john adams did before he left office was appoint 16 new federal judgeships/judidicial offices using judiciary act of 1801

  • backlash from demreps who thought federalists where trying to make their influence stay for longer than it shld and the republican congress swept some benches/positions under

Louisiana Purchase

  • thicc purchase of land by jefferson from napoleon for the land west of the missippi river, including new orleans for $15 mil (3 cents per acre)

  • jefferson had an existential crisis before buying bc there wasn't anything in the constitution about procuring land

  • basically napoleon was trying to take over the new world after taking over, so jefferson sent envoys to scout out area and try to pry it out of napoleon's hands

    • he told them to go try and buy it from france, and if that failed, form an alliance with britain

  • napoleon didnt want an alliance btwn those two and also kinda gave up on taking over new world bc Haitian Revolution so he handed it to jefferson for super cheap

  • lewis and clark's corps of discovery to help explore the area, producing scientific observations, maps, and knowledge of NAs in area

Shay's Rebellion

  • 1786

  • backcountry farmers losing farms bc of foreclosures and an inability to pay taxes (in debt)

  • led by captain daniel shays, veteran of rev war

  • demands for the state

    • paper money

    • lighten taxes

    • suspend property

  • massachusetts raised small army backed by wealthy, where several Shaysites were killed and wounded

  • struck fear of "mobocracy" in many feds

Embargo of 1807

  • jefferson's attempt to hurt france and britain without using war

  • u.s. trying to get back at france and britain for impressment and attempt to get them to respect america

  • embargos on all american exports, figuring the two would suffer wo America's raw materials

  • didn't work bc jefferson overestimated how much these two countries relied on America's raw materials

    • france was expanding and had other colonies

  • so the colonies ended up suffering significantly while england and france didn't care

    • low on food, everyone was pissed

    • 1808 illicit trade sprung up

  • revoked in 1809, enough time to hurt america but not britain/france

Non-Intercourse Act

  • trying to make to the embargo 1807 work by making it so only britain/france were hurt

  • spoiler alert it flopped too

  • 1809

  • revoked in 1812 when america finally declared war on england

  • both this act and the og embargo of 1807 accidentally boosted american manufacturing since americans weren't getting manufactured goods from outside so they had to start manufacturing on their own


  • british taking americans on ships and forcing them to become british sailors/enlist in british navy

    • believed that some british people had ran and joined the americans and were in search of them

  • since america didn't uphold its side of the treaty by not giving loyalists their land back, they felt no obligation to uphold theirs

  • america was like "pls stop" and so britain signed non-intercourse act but then they didn't stop

  • rly sad looking for america bc america couldnt do anything so they looked weak

  • one of the causes of war of 1812

Judicial Review

  • power given by marshall vs madison

  • gave congress right to look over a law and determine if it was constitutional or not

  • (tmrw add stuff about how it gave a power demreps tried to allocate to states and shit)