Poetry Unit Vocab (copy)

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Onomatopoeia

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Onomatopoeia

using words that imitate the sound they denote ex: "boing" "gargle" "zap"

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Vowels

a, e, i, o, u, sometimes w, y

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Semivowels

f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, w, c, g, z - effect: euphonious

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Mutes

k, p, t, b, d, q, c - effect: cacophonous

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Alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds

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Assonance

repetition of vowel sounds

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Consonance

repetition of consonant sounds

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Euphony

a pleasing sound through a harmonious combination of words

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Cacophony

a harsh sound through a discordant mixture of sounds

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Explosive

a mute followed by a vowel - effect: cacophonous

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Liquid Consonants

l, m, n, r - effect: euphonious sound

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Prosody

the metrical composition of a poem ex: iambic pentameter is the most common :)

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Scansion

the action of scanning a line of verse to determine its rhythm

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Metrical Lines

collections of syllables with a particular emphasis ex: iambic, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee

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Iambic

unstressed, stressed

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Trochee

stressed, unstressed

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Dactyl

stressed, unstressed, unstressed

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Anapest

unstressed, unstressed, stressed

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Spondee

two long equally stressed syllables

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Caesura

a break between words within a metrical foot (//)

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Iambic Pentameter

five metrical feet: unstressed, stressed - the most common prosody

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Longer Line Effect

effect: greater power and scope, abundance, richness, joy

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Shorter Line Effect

effect: agitation, restlessness, excitement, greater than usual attentiveness

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True Rhyme

Rhymes on the final syllable (can be masculine - ends with stressed syllable, or feminine - ends with unstressed syllable)

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Slant Rhyme

Similar but not identical vowel/consonant sounds that rhyme

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Blank Verse

unrhymed iambic pentameter (Shakespeare used this)

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Enjambment

The continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. effect: to speed up the pace of the poem or to create a sense of urgency, tension, or rising emotion as the reader is pulled from one line to the next.

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Self-enclosed

A line with punctuation at the end, stopping the reader before they move on to the next line

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Couplet

two rhyming lines

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Tercet

three rhyming lines

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Quatrain

four rhyming lines

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Sonnet

14 lines, usually 10 syllables per line ex: English (Shakesperean) Sonnet, Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet

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English (Shakesperean) Sonnet

A sonnet that usually uses iambic pentameter, and has no octave/sestet structure to it. The final couplet is the defining feature. Usually as the following rhyme scheme (ababcdcdefef gg)

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Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet

A sonnet that usually uses iambic pentameter, and has an octave of eight lines followed by a sestet of six. Possible rhyme schemes include: ababcdcd cdecde abbaabba cddcee

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Free Verse

Poetry that does not rhyme

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Connotation

The meaning behind a word - beyond its literal meaning

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Denotation

The literal meaning of a word; it's definition

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Imagery

Elements of a poem that invoke any of the 5 senses

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Figurative Language

Non-literal language. ex: metaphor, simile, hyperbole etc.

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Simile

A comparison between two objects using "like" or "as"

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Metaphor

A comparison between two objects NOT using "like" or "as"

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Personification

giving the attributes of a human being to an animal, an object, or a concept

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Allusion

a well known reference

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Metonymy

the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant. ex: using "crown" to mean king or smth

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Synecdoche

the use of a part to stand for the whole. ex: "i didn't eat a crumb", "i'll take your hand in marriage"

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Apostrophe

addressing someone absent or dead or something non-human as if that person or thing were present

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Form

the physical structure of the poem: the length of the lines, their rhythms, their system of rhymes and repetition - ALL POEMS HAVE THIS!

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