Praxis 5039

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English

208 Terms

1

haiku

a Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five, traditionally evoking images of the natural world.

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iambic pentameter

a line of verse with five metrical feet, each consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable, for example Two households, both alike in dignity.

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iambic pentameter

A commonly used type of metric line used in traditional English poetry and verse drama. The term describes the rhythym that the words establish in that line, which is measured in small groups of syllables called "feet".

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iamb

an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable

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pentameter

indicates that there are five "feet" in the line of iamb.

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sonnet

a 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter with a rhyming scheme. Shakespeare's take form with abab cdcd efef gg.

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annotation

a note of explanation or comment added to a text or diagram.

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denotation

the literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.

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9

gothic literature

A literary movement that began in 1764 that was an offset of the Romanticist movement with a darker spin. Themes include creepy locale, crazy and evil villains, damsels, unique heroes, hellish creatures, suspenseful and offensive emotional appeals. From ghost stories to horror tales, this genre reveals the darker and more disturbing side of ourselves.

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10

The Enlightenment vs Romanticism

A clash in the 18th century between those who wanted reason and objectivity (E) and those who wanted to feel things and value emotion and imagination (R)

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modernist literature

Beginning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, this movement is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.

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first person

someone telling you his or her story- usually an autobiography or memoir

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second person

you (the reader) being told how you should do something. This is used when the writer wants to address the reader.

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third person

most common point of view used in fiction and academic writing. The author doesn't use "I" or "we" and appears to be telling his/her own story.

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first person pronouns

subjective singular: I objective singular: me possessive case: my, mine subjective plural: we objective plural: us possessive plural: our and ours

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second person pronouns

subjective singular and plural: you objective singular and plural: you possessive singular and plural: your/yours

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third person pronouns

subjective singular: he/she/it objective singular: him/her/it possessive singular: his/his, her/hers, its/its subjective plural: they objective plural: them possessive plural: their/theirs

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compound sentence

consists of two or more independent clauses

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simple sentence

consists of only one clause

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complex sentence

has at least one independent clause plus at least one dependent clause.

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21

clause

a syntactic construction containing a subject and predicate and forming part of a sentence or constituting a whole simple sentence.

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sentence fragment

a set of words with no independent clause

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dependent clause

a clause that provides an independent clause with additional information. On its own, it doesn't express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence (also called subordinate clauses)

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independent clause

a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone (aka: a sentence)

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predicate

the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject

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A clause is dependent/subordinate when it begins with a ________ word:

subordinate:

because when since who while which that unless (etc)

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"." or "". ?

"."

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preposition

a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause

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preposition examples

of to in about above aboard between except by during despite within until up with versus without

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prefix

added to the beginning of a root word to change its meaning (ex. return, dishonest)

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root

a basic word to which affixes (prefixes and suffixes) can be added to make it a new word.

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suffix

a morpheme added at the end of a word to form a derivative

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prefix examples

re- agian, back un- not, opposite dis- not mis-wrong pre-before under-below

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suffix examples

etic- relating to (athletic) ette- diminutive/ smaller ful- full of fy- make, cause (amplify, terrify)

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35

subject-verb agreement

A singular subject agrees with a singular verb, a plural subject agrees with a plural verb. (Your patience and consideration IS appreciated" should be "your patience and consideration ARE appreciated")

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misplaced modifier

a phrase or clause placed awkwardly in a sentence so that it appears to modify or refer to an unintended word. To avoid misplacing them, first identify the noun and its modifier.

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Where do adjective modifiers go?

Adjective modifiers typically go before the noun, or after with a helping verb. (The PRETTY girl/ The girl was PRETTY)

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Where do adverb modifiers go?

Adverbs can go before or after the thing they are modifying, depending on what example they are modifying: The VERY pretty girl/ He ran QUICKLY

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kinesthetic learning

A learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities, rather than listening to a lecture or watching demonstrations.

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40

The three subcategories of third person point of view

  1. objective third person

  2. the limited third person

  3. the omniscient third person

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objective third person point of view

the narrator knows or reveals nothing about the character's internal thoughts, feelings, and motivations, but sticks to the external facts of the story (Think Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter)

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limited third person point of view

the narrator described the internal thoughts, feelings, and motivations of one character, usually the main character (think Harry Potter)

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omniscient third person point of view

the narrator knows and at least partially reveals the internal thoughts, feelings, and motivations of the characters (think EB White's Charlotte's Web)

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The four types of text

  1. Expository

  2. Persuasive

  3. Narrative

  4. Tecnical

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45

Expository Texts

Biographies, autobiographies, newspaper and magazine articles,

reports, graphs, brochures, charts are also techincal

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46

Narrative Texts

fiction, they tell a story, have themes, have a beginning, middle and end, diaries, fables, myths and legends, plays, poetry

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Technical Texts

non-fiction, gives information, contains steps, no humor, specific terminology- brochures, classified ads, recipes, directions.

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48

Persuasive Texts

Author tries to convince the reader of something, takes a stand and makes claims, call to action- ads and commercials, debates, movie critiques.

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Functional Texts

writings that are meant to help you out and solve a problem- product manual, forms, signs, public transportation schedules, etc.

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50

Discussion model: Literature Circle

Assign groups of 3 or 4 students to leveled readers. Let them read it and then provide a journal promt. After they have written their responses, form discussion groups.

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51

Discussion model: Think-pair-share

A collaborative learning strategy in which students work together to solve a problem or answer a question about an assigned reading. This requires them to think individually about a topic and share ideas with classmates.

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Discussion model: Socratic seminar

A formal discussion, based on a text, in which the leader asks open-ended questions. Within the context of the discussion, students listen closely to the comments of others, thinking critically for themselves, and articulate their own thoughts and their responses to the thoughts of others.

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Discussion model: Reciprocal teaching

An Instructional activity in which students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. Teachers model, then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies- summarizing, question generating, clarifying and predicting.

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jigsaw strategy

A strategy that emphasizes cooperative learning by providing students an opportunity to actively help each other build comprehension. Use this technique to assign student to reading groups composed of varying skill level.

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KWL

Instructional reading strategy that is used to guide students through a text. Students begin by brainstorming everything they Know about a topic, what the Want to know, and what they Learned after the reading.

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56

SQ3R

A reading comrehension method named for its five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review.

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Writing Across the Curriculum

A movement within contemporary composition studies that concerns itself with writing in classes outside of composition, literature, and other English courses.

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Formative Assessment

a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment (unlike Summartive Evaluations- judgments made about the efficacy of a program or course when it has ended)

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59

constructivism

a theory that states as readers become involved with a text, they construct meaning through an active process of integrating what they are reading with their own reactions, knowledge, beliefs, and ideas

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60

constructivism places emphasis on:

how the social and cultural backgrounds of readers influence how they understand and experience a text

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"Everyday Use"

Alice Walker

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constructivists believe most learning and understanding occurs in a:

social context. Readers are better able to construct interpretations of and find meaning in a text when they have opportunities to engage in dialogue with others about a text.

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schemas

cognitive connections that are molded in an individual's mind over time and shape the persons worldview.

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How can a teacher use constructivist theory in the classroom?

By designing lessons that require students both to respond to and interact with text as they read and to interact with each other through authentic discussion and debate. Activities that provide opportunities to process, share, and examine their thought about texts are essential.

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65

literary criticism

a formal study, analysis, and evaluation of literary texts

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canon

a group of works that are considered to be culturally, artistically, or historically significant.

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67

The Colonial Period

1620-1750

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American Literature Periods

The Colonial Period The Age of Revolution Romantic Period Transcendental Anti-Transcendental Transitional Writers The Realistic Period Civil War Writers Regionalism Naturalism The Modern Period

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69

Of Plymouth Plantation

William Bradford- Colonial Period

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70

various poems- Colonial Period

Anne Bradstreet

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The interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equinao

Olaudah Equiano- Colonial Period

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72

"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

Johnathan Edwards- Colonial Period

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73

The Age of Revolution

(1750-1815)

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Common Sense and other essays

Thomas Paine- The Age of Revolution

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various essays and speeches

Thomas Jefferson- The Age of Revolution

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Poor Richard's Almanack and other essays and speeches

Benjamin Franklin- The Age of Revolution

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The Romantic Period

1800-1865

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"The Prairies"

William Cullen Bryant- The Romantic Period

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The Last of the Mohicans

James Fennimore Cooper- The Romantic Period

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"Ain't I a Woman"

Sojourner Truth- The Romantic Period

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"The Devil and Tom Walker"

Washington Irving- The Romantic Period

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82

Transcendtal Writers

Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau

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Ralph Waldo Emerson

Self-Reliance and The American Scholar

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Henry David Thoreau

Walden and Civil Disobedience

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Anti-Transcendental Writers

Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville

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86

Nathaniel Hawthorne

The Scarlet Letter

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Herman Melville

Moby Dick

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New England or Transitional Writers

Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman

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Emily Dickinson

various poem

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Walt Whitman

"Song of Myself" and "Oh Captain! My Captain!"

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The Realistic Period

1855-1900

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various works- The Realistic Period

William Dean Howells

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Civil War Writers

Mary Chestnut, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass

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Mary Chestnut

Diary of Mary Chestnut

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Abraham Lincoln

"The Gettysburg Address"

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Frederick Douglass

My Bondage and My Freedom

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Regionalist Writers

Willa Cather and William Faulkner

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Naturalists

Jack London and Stephen Crane

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99

Willa Cather

My Antonia

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100

William Faulkner

Absalom! Absalom!

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