PSY1101 Exam 2023

studied byStudied by 12 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The Scientific Method

1 / 232

Tags and Description

233 Terms

1

The Scientific Method

  1. Identify the problem

  2. gather information

  3. generate a hypothesis

  4. design and conduct experiments

  5. analyze data and formulate conclusions

  6. restart process

New cards
2

Naturalistic observation

Observation as it happens without an attempt to manipulate or control the subjects environment

New cards
3

field experiment

experiment takes place in the real world

New cards
4

case study

in-depth analysis of a unique circumstance or individual.

New cards
5

hippocampus

plays a role in the transfer of memories to long term memory

New cards
6

entorhinal cortex

found in the temporal lobe and plays a role in behavior and memory.

New cards
7

procedural memories

memories that pertain to how something is done (i.e., riding a bike)

New cards
8

surveys

a method using questions to collect information on how people think or act. Quick way to collect lots of information.

New cards
9

sample

subset of a population

New cards
10

sampling error

a sample that deviates from a true representation of a population

New cards
11

bias

an unfair or unequal representation of a person or thing

New cards
12

response bias

the tendency for people to answer the questions the way they feel they are expected to answer

New cards
13

acquiescent response bias

the tendency for participants to agree or respond “yes” to all questions regardless of their actual opinions. (“yea-saying”)

New cards
14

socially desirable bias

participants respond to questions in ways that would be seen as notable by others (i.e., people wont openly admit to illegal acts)

New cards
15

illusory superiority

the tendency to describe our own behavior as better than average

New cards
16

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study

Study to follow the natural progression of syphilis. They infected African American men. Study lasted 40yrs and denied participants medical treatment even though there were advancements in the treatment of syphilis.

New cards
17

5 ethical principals of research

  1. Beneficence and non-maleficence

  2. Fidelity and Responsibility

  3. Integrity

  4. Justice

  5. Respect for rights and dignity

New cards
18

beneficence

Principle states that research should strive to do good

New cards
19

Maleficence

Avoid creating experiments that can intentionally harm participants

New cards
20

Fidelity and Responsibility

The ethical principle of developing trusting relationships between researchers and participants

New cards
21

Integrity

An ethical principle that psychologists should engage in accurate, honest, and non-biased practices in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology.

New cards
22

Justice

An ethical principle in research where those people who participate in research should get the benefits of the research. (if they pass a drug then the test group should be the first to get it)

New cards
23

inclusion criteria

an attribute of participants that is necessary to be a part of a research study

New cards
24

exclusion criteria

an attribute of a person that would prevent them from participating in a research study

New cards
25

eligibility criteria

The combination of inclusion and exclusion criteria to create a set of characteristics shared by all participants that ensure that those participating will meaningfully address the research question.

New cards
26

Respect for rights and dignity

An ethical principle where the researchers should take measures to respect and protect participants rights, privacy, and welfare. Also includes confidentiality.

New cards
27

The IRB reviews research studies to make sure they’re ethical by confirming:

  1. proposed study will use sound research design

  2. risks are minimized

  3. benefits outweigh the risks

  4. can make informed consent and withdraw whenever

  5. safeguards in place to protect the participants

  6. all data collected will be confidential

New cards
28

correlation

a measure (denotes as r) that captures the direction and strength of a relationship between variables. Relationship is strong when points are clustered tightly together in a linear relationship.

New cards
29

positive correlation

When variables change in the same direction (i.e., one increases and the other does as well)

New cards
30

negative correlation

When variables are opposite (i.e., as one increases the other decreases).

New cards
31

zero correlation

two variables exhibit no apparent relationship

New cards
32

Correlation coefficient

A numerical representation of the strength of the relationship between variables (denoted as r). Ranges from -1 to +1 (sign indicates direction of correlation). A perfect positive is +1, no relationship is 0, and a perfect negative is -1)

New cards
33

extraneous/confounding variables

variables that are not the focus of the study but they influence the outcome if they are not controlled.

New cards
34

What is the best placebo?

a) a white pill is more effective than a blue pill

b) a needle is more effective than a capsule

c) a letter on a white pill is more effective than a capsule

d) a blue pill is more effective than a capsule

b) a needle is more effective than a capsule

New cards
35

descriptive statistics

a collection of ways to describe the data in the simplest way, which involves quantitative values.

New cards
36

types of central tendency

mean (average), median (middle), and mode (most frequently reoccurring number)

New cards
37

What is a disadvantage of using the mean as central tendency?

It can be affected by outliers

New cards
38

neuron

cells that communicate with the brain to form thoughts and actions. Cell codes info through electrical signals.

New cards
39

glial cells

perform numerous support functions in the nervous system

New cards
40
<p>dendrites</p>

dendrites

extensions of the cell body membrane that branch out to communicate with other neurons

New cards
41

neurotransmitter

chemicals released from the end of an axon that acts as messages to other neurons and body parts. Chemicals bind to receptors

New cards
42

receptors (neurons)

proteins that are embedded in the cell body to receive chemical messages from neurotransmitters

New cards
43
<p>soma</p>

soma

The cell body of a neuron, contains the organelles and controls the metabolic processing for the cell

New cards
44
<p>axon hillock</p>

axon hillock

The intersection between the soma and the axon. This is where the axon begins.

New cards
45
<p>axon</p>

axon

a long, narrow, projection from the cell body

New cards
46
<p>axon terminals</p>

axon terminals

part of the axon that releases the neurotransmitter. Once the action potential reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter.

New cards
47
<p>terminal buttons</p>

terminal buttons

the very edge of the axon terminal, where the neurotransmitter exits

New cards
48

vesicles

little bubbles at the terminal button that store neurotransmitter molecules.

New cards
49

presynaptic neuron

portion of the neuron that releases the neurotransmitter into the synapse

New cards
50

synaptic cleft

the space between the end of the neuron that releases a neurotransmitter (axon terminal) and the end of the receiving neuron (dendrite).

New cards
51

synapse

small fluid-filled gap between neurons into which neurotransmitters are released

New cards
52

postsynaptic receptor

the other side of the synapse. The neuron contains receptors ready to bind to the neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic neuron

New cards
53

myelin

a protein and fatty substance that wraps around the axon to PROTECT and INCREASE speed of action potentials

New cards
54

nodes of Ranvier

gaps in the myelin that allow ions to enter the axon

New cards
55

polarize cell state

-70mV inside the cell. Polarization (-ve) and depolarization (+ve)

New cards
56

Steps to action potential in a neuron

  1. small influx of Na+

  2. triggering of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels

  3. large influx of Na+

  4. efflux of K+

New cards
57

oligodendrocytes

glial (helper) cells that wrap the myelin insulation around the axons in the CNS

New cards
58

Schwann cells

Glial (helper) cells that wrap the myelin insulation around the axons in the PNS

New cards
59

astrocytes

glial (helper) cells that help get nutrition to neurons and maintain the balance of ions inside and outside the neuron

New cards
60

microglia

Glial (helper) cells that clean debris and get rid of germs

New cards
61

Central Nervous System (CNS)

composed of the brain and the spinal cord

New cards
62

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

all the nerves outside the skull and vertebral column, as well as the specialized sensory endings (i.e., hair cells in the ear)

New cards
63

Somatic Nervous System

contains the neurons and nerves that control the muscles for voluntary movement and bring sensory info back to the brain from the body.

New cards
64

pons

a network of cells in the brain stem that regulate

  • awareness/alertness

  • sleep

  • motor function

New cards
65

What do the medulla and pons do?

  • regulate basic life functions

  • connect the PNS and CNS to regulate what we do and what we pay attention to

New cards
66

Medulla

  • lowest portion of the brain (transition between brain and spinal cord)

  • Vital to support life; damage is fatal

New cards
67

basal ganglia

Interconnected groups of neurons near the base of the brain that help us:

  • learn movements

  • coordinate movement patterns

New cards
68

Parts of the basal ganglia

  1. dorsal striatum

  2. ventral striatum

  3. globus pallidus

  4. substantia nigra

New cards
69

dorsal and ventral striatum

inputs to the basal ganglia come in

New cards
70

globus pallidus and substantia nigra

send out inhibitory outputs to the thalamus to help integrate sensory and motor information.

New cards
71

What disease is the basal ganglia associated with?

Parkinson’s disease (impaired movement)

New cards
72

cerebellum (“little brain”)

Two-lobed part of the brain posterior to the brain stem that helps:

  • movement

  • problem-solving

New cards
73

What are the divisions of the cerebellum?

  • spinocerebellar (helps match sensory input w/ motor plans to refine movement patterns)

  • vestibulocerebellar (processes info form the inner ear to adjust balance)

  • cerebrocerebellar (adjusts the timing and planning of movements)

New cards
74

thalamus

the body’s information relay station

New cards
75

temporal lobe

part of the cortex that assists with:

  • forming memories

  • processing sound input

located on the right side of the brain above the ear

New cards
76

the corpus callosum

thick bundle of fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres and allows them to share info. All sensory info except for olfactory (smell) crosses to the other side of the brain.

New cards
77

split brain

cut the corpus callosum to treat seizures. Patients have trouble seeing an object in the left visual field and naming it. Visual info from the left is processed in the right visual cortex.

New cards
78

Three major endocrine control centers in the CNS

  1. hypothalamus - secretes hormones and controls the pituitary gland

  2. pineal gland - secretes melatonin to regulate the sleep cycle

  3. pituitary gland - secretes hormones that affect sexual behavior, reproduction, circulatory function, hunger, and responses to aggression.

New cards
79

bottom-up processing

the processing of physical messages delivered to the senses.

New cards
80

top-down processing

combine incoming neural message with our own understanding of the world to interpret information in a way that has value

New cards
81

Principle of proximity

objects that are close to one another will be grouped together

New cards
82

The principle of similarity

objects that are physically similar to one another will be grouped together

New cards
83

The laws of Gestalt

Ways of organizing and understanding the world

New cards
84

principle of closure

people tend to perceive whole objects even when part of the information is missing

New cards
85

principle of good continuation

if lines cross each other or are interrupted, people tend to still see continuously flowing lines

New cards
86

principle of common fate

objects that are moving together will be grouped together (i.e., group of birds)

New cards
87
<p>retina</p>

retina

Thin layer of tissues on the back of each eye that contains the photosensitive receptor cells

New cards
88
<p>cornea</p>

cornea

The transparent covering of the eye

New cards
89
<p>pupil</p>

pupil

The hole in the center of the eye that allows light to enter

New cards
90
<p>iris</p>

iris

The ring of pigmented tissues surrounding the pupil. Responsible for:

  • controlling diameter and size of pupil

  • controlling amount of light that reaches retina

New cards
91
<p>lens</p>

lens

A flexible piece of tissue located behind the pupil that focuses light on the retina

New cards
92

photoreceptors

Cells that are specifically sensitive to exposure t light. Located at the back of the eye

New cards
93

rods

kind of photoreceptor in the retina; typically most responsive to LOW levels of light

New cards
94

cones

type of photoreceptor in the retina that is responsive to BRIGHT light. Responsible for communicating info about acuity and color

New cards
95
<p>fovea</p>

fovea

the portion of the retina directly behind the pupil. Contains a large concentration of CONES and no rods.

New cards
96

diffuse bipolar cells

part of the bipolar layer of the retina. These cells receive signals from rods and send messages to large ganglion cells

New cards
97

midget bipolar cells

Part of the bipolar layer of the retina. These cells receive signals from cones and send their messages to the small ganglion cells

New cards
98

pinna

the external part of the ear

New cards
99

tympanic membrane (eardrum)

transfers energy to the smallest bones of the body (ossicles)

New cards
100

ossicles

3 smallest bones of the body. Responsible for amplifying vibrations arriving at the eardrum and transmitting these signals to the oval window of the cochlea

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)