APUSH Chapter 23

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"Coping with Change" (1920-1929)

118 Terms



A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations

  • America's stance post WWI

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What new development took over 60% of American households?

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1920 Recession

What caused Washington to cancel wartime dense contracts?

  • Caused veterans to reenter the job market

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Who suffered during the time of perceived economic prosperity?

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What = fear for postwar America?

  • Killed the progressive movement

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Advancing mode of transportation that took over the nation like a wildfire

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Louis Chevrolet

Founded Chevrolet with Billy Durant

  • Was named after him

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Vladimir Lenin

Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

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"Peace, Land, and Bread"

What did Lenin promised to gain support from the people in Russia?

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Bolshevik Revolution

1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I

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Communist Lenin's supporters

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Anti-communists Lenin's enemies

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Whose agricultural trade revived after WWI causing American farmers to lose a major trade source?

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Red Scare (1919-1920)

  • Brief period of mass anti-communist paranoia in the U.S., during which a number of legislatures passed anti-red statutes that often violated the right to free speech

  • Fear among noncitizens in general as a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots

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Palmer Raids

A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities

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Henry Ford

1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and main motivator of "higher wages and lower hours"

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Generally had the higher wages out of the nation's hemispheres

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Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco

Italian immigrants and known anarchists who were arrested and executed by electrocution for robbery and murder robbery of a guard and paymaster.

  • Because of their beliefs, they didn't receive a fair trial (had represented the American societies fear)

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Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)

This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. Prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade. Also caused foreign countries to retaliate against the US by raising their tariffs

  • Tariff raised to 38.5% and kept rising

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Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)

The highest U.S. tariff rates in 100 years. The high rates led to a tariff war with other nations that worsened the international depression and cut American exports and imports by more than half.

  • Tariff designed during the Great Depression

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Assembly Line Production

Arrangement of workers, machines, and equipment in which the product being assembled passes consecutively from operation to operation until completed.

  • Workers had one position they specialized in. Did only that assignment

  • Boosted production by 40%

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System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford

  • nickname of Assembly line production on a worldwide platform

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"Fordization of the face"

The expressionless mask of the workers was called...

  • workers in the 1920s were discouraged in individual initiative as well as conversation and laughter

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a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law

  • controlled nearly half the nation's business

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Billy Sunday

Preacher and Former Pro Baseball Player- Key figure in the prohibition movement

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Emergency Quota Act (1921)

This law restricted immigration to 3% of each nationality that was in the United States in 1910

  • Limited total immigrants allowed to come from outside the western hemisphere to 350,000

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Immigration Act (1924)

This law restricted immigration to 2% of each nationality that was in the United States in 1890

  • Limited total immigrants allowed to come from outside the western hemisphere to 164,000

  • Also called the National Origins Act

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19th Amendment (1920)

Gave women the right to vote

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Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

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Race Riots

Migration of African Americans to nothern cities increased racial tensions, which led to ________ _______ in many cities. Conditions were no better in the South than in the North.

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Freedom of Choice

Buying more and more products was seen as...

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Pursuit of Happiness

Since it was stated in the Declaration of independence, it was advertised as the duty of all good citizens

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Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong

Most famous jazz performers of the Harlem Renaissance

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Records / Phonograph

Mass production allowed the production of these two products, impacted the influence of music

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Marcus Garvey

African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927 for fraud

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Where was Marcus Garvey deported after being convicted for fraud?

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Flagpole Sitting

A fad of the 1920s where people would perch on top of flagpoles for hours

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Shipwreck Kelly

Famous flagpole sitter who sat on a flagpole for 49 days straight

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How many days did flagpole Kelly sit on a flagpole

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Welfare Capitalism

An approach to labor relations in which companies meet some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions, thus preventing strikes and keeping productivity high

  • Anti-union strategy

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Miss America Contest (Pageant)

Contest held in Atlantic City (1921)

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Margret Gorman

Winner of the first Miss America, also the most beautiful bathing girl in America. Changed the role of women and represented their leisureliness.

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Charles Lindbergh

  • United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

  • Aviator who flew a non-stop New York to Paris flight in 1927 for a $25,000 reward

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Reward for an aviator who could fly a non-stop route from New York to Paris

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6-inch laws

Laws when dancing with the opposite sex where the couple must stay 6 inches apart

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Controlled the Congress and White House (1920s)

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white-collar worker

someone who works in a professional or clerical job and who usually earns a weekly salary

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blue-collar worker

Someone who performs manual labor, often in a manufacturing job, and who earns an hourly wage.

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Warren G. Harding

Republican nominee in 1920

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James Cox

Democratic presidential candidate in the 1920 election

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Henry C. Wallace

Secretary of Agriculture under Harding

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Charles Evans Hughes

Secretary of State under Harding

  • 1916 presidential nominee

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Andrew Mellon

Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover

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Herbert Hoover

Secretary of Commerce under Harding

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Harry Daugherty (Traitor)

Attorney General under Harding

  • Accepted bribes to decide Justice Department cases

  • Committed suicide when convicted of influence peddling

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Jesse Smith

Daugherty's assistant who committed suicide/was murdered when Daughterty's schemes were found out

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Albert Hall (Traitor)

Secretary of the Interior

  • Went to jail for leasing government oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming in return for a $400,000 bribe, which never materialized

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Charles Forbes (Traitor)

Head of the Veterans Bureau

  • Caught stealing $200 million from the government, chiefly in connection with the building of veterans' hospitals

  • Fled to Europe and mailed back his resignation letter

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Charles Cramer

legal advisor to the Veteran's Bureau was also exposed for taking bribes, he too committed suicide.

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Teapot Dome Scandal

A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

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San Francisco Hotel

Where did Warren Harding die?

  • Died during term from a heart attack / pneumonia while on vacation

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Young woman from the 1920s who defied traditional rules of conduct and dress but knew when to draw the line

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Young woman from the 1920s who defied traditional rules of conduct and dress but didn't know when to stop

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Cult of Domesticity

Idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands

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installment plan

A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid

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Replaced coal for energy

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Calvin Coolidge

Became president when Harding died of pneumonia.

  • He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.

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Movies with sound

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Silent Cal

Calvin Coolidge's nickname

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William Howard Taft

Appointed Supreme Court Chief Justice under Harding

  • 27th president of the U.S

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Mississippi River Flood

  • Destroyed land, spread disease, devastated and even killed thousands, and spread over 5 states.

  • Coolidge did not put much effort into relief and was greatly criticized for it (He believed the government shouldn't interfere)

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KDKA Pittsburgh

One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. Broadcasted the Harding-Cox presidential election returns on November 2, 1920

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Soap Operas

Shows/radio broadcast that were nicknamed this because they were often sponsored by makers of laundry soaps to target women consumers

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Flood Control Act (1928)

Amended 1969; regulated building in flood zones; flood insurance

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McNary-Haugen Bill

Price support plan where the gov would purchase the surplus of 6 basic farm commodities at their average price in 1909-1914. Then the gov would sell the surpluses abroad at market prices and recover the difference through tax on domestic sales of these commodities

  • Coolidge vetoed the bill twice

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Model T

A cheap and simple car designed by Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own a car

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Burma Shave

Company whose signs staked around America with stories and slogans

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Kellogg-Briand Pact

Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

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John T. Scopes

An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution

  • His trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist and placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America

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Scopes Monkey Trial (1925)

Trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism

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ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union)

Promised to defend any teacher who violated that law that said they couldn't teach evolution

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Clarance Darrow

Defended John Scopes in the "Scopes Trial" of the 1920s; supported teaching of evoulution

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William Jennings Bryan

Prosecutor in the Scopes Trial

  • advocated for creation

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Federal Radio Commission

Formed by the Radio Act of 1927, the commission, the precursor to the FCC, created a policy that favored fewer high-power radio broadcasting stations rather than more numerous low-power stations

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John W. Davis

Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge

  • He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company

  • Coolidge easily defeated Davis.

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Birth of a Nation

Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.

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18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

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St. Valentine's Massacre

February 14, 1929. Capone's men dressed up as policemen and killed 7 rival gang members.

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Al Capone

A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits

  • His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.

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Harlem Renaissance

A period in the 1920s when African American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

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Harry Sinclair and Edward Doheny

Who did Albert Fall lease oil to during Harding's presidency?

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Albert Fall

first Cabinet official to be sent to prison

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The game Harding played with his friends at the White House

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Florence's (Harding's wife) nickname

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Ozawa v. United States

Concerned a Federal Law which said that Chinese aliens could not become naturalized citizens -- the court held that the statute was valid for Japanese as well, even though not mentioned in the law, the court felt that the intent of the law was to limit citizenship by naturalization to those of the Caucasian race only.

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Washington Naval Disarmament Conference

meeting held in 1921 and 1922 where world leaders agreed to limit construction of warships

  • 5 (America), 5 (Britian), 3 (Japan), 1.5 (France), 1.5 (Italy)

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Four Power Treaty

Allowed Japan to fortify Pacific possessions

  • Was extremely costly and long

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Nine-Power Treaty

  1. Treaty that was essentially a reinvention of the Open Door Policy. All members to allow equal and fair trading rights with China. Signed by (9) US, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal.

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American Black Chamber

Mission was to break the communications of other nations

  • State department withdrew funding later when Secretary of State Henry L Stimson stated "Gentlemen don't read each other's mail"

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Herbert O. Yardley

Headed the American Black Chamber

  • Later wrote "The American Black Chamber" alerting 19 nations that their codes were broken by America

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