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nephrons

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141 Terms

1

nephrons

arteriols get in contact with the functional unit of kidney. consist of glomerulus, bowman’s capsule and the renal tubes. functional unit of arteries

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2

efferent

there is increase hydrostatic pressure. this would cause the solutes to exit the capillaries

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3

glomerular filtration rate - gfr

1-2ml per kg per hour

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4

filtration

about 20% of the total blood pumped by the heart each minute will enter the kidneys to under go ------

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5

tubular reabsorption

process that moves solutes and water out of the filtrate and back into the blood stream

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6

tubular secretion

potassium, phosphate, hydrogen and ammonium ions too large to pass through bowman’s capsule, enter the urine by crossing from the blood to the filtrate

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7

renin

being produce when the bp is low

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8

erythropoietin

responsible for rbc production

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9

calcitriol

vit b calcium homeotasis

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10

kallikreins

liberating kinins form our blood, vasodilation

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11

anuria

condition in which the body stops making urine

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12

dysuria

any discomfort associated with urination- related to uti

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13

enuresis

uncontrolled voiding

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14

hematuria

blood in the urine

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15

nephritis

inflammation of the kidneys

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16

nocturia

frequent urination at night

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17

diurnal enuresis

unintended leakage of urine during waking hours

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18

polyuria

overproduction of urine by the kidneys, resulting in excessive urination

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19

olyguria

decreased urine outpu <400 ml/day

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20

albuminuria

albumin in the urine

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21

glomerular disease

it refers to a set of medical conditions which affect the glomeruli directly. glomeruli- to clean the blood from any toxins or other impurities

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22

wilms tumor

commonly seen in kids from ages 3 to 4 and tends to occur less frequently after the age of 5. most common kidney cancer in children

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23

renal failure

decrease in the kidneys ability to maintain electrolyte and fluid balance and to excrete waste products

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24

diuretics

water pills, would increase the urine output/ volume

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25

thiazide diuretiics

acts directly in the arterioles to cause vasodilation which can lower the BP - used for the hypertension patient. promotes sodium, chloride and water excretions which result to the decrease in vascular fluid volume and concomitant decrease in cardiac output and bp.

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26

loop diuretics/ high ceiling diuretics

act on the thick ascending loop of henle to inhibit chloride transport of sodium and potassium into the circulation and inhibit passive reabsorption of sodium. shorter than thiazides

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27

potassium-sparing diuretics

antagonize the actions of aldosterone at distal segment of the distal tubule. mild diuretics

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28

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

blocks the action of enzyme carbonic anhydrase needed to maintain the body acid-base balance

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29

osmotic diuretics

increases the osmolality concentration and sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule and loop of henle. create an osmotic force that pulls water into the nephron and increases the excretion of nearly all electrolytes

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30

antidiuretics

agents that reduce urine volume, opposing diuresis. reduce urine flow by acting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules

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31

urinary antiseptics

are oral agents that exert antibacterial activity in the urine but have little or no systematic antibacterial effects. their usefulness is limited to lower urinary tract infections

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32

nitrofurantoin- furadantin

primarily bacteriostatic, treatment of uti limited to e. coli, damage bacterial dna, treatment of uncomplicated lower uti, long term prophylaxis following catheterization, instrumentation

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33

methenamine

prodrug, decomposes slowly in acidic urine to relase formaldehyde which inhibits all bacteria, for chronic and resistant uti

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34

nalidixic acid

inhibit the replication of bacteria by interfering with the action of dna during growth and development

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35

phenazopyridine - pyridium

urinary analgesic, no antibacterial property, it has local anesthetic effect on urinary tract mucosa, for burning sensation, dysuria

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36

alpha blockers- tamsulosin HCL ; tamsolin

relaxes the bladder muscles, these medications relax the muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, which allows urine to flow more easily. treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia to relieve symptoms of urinary obstruction. - terazosin ; hytrin, doxazosin ; cardura

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37

5a reductase inhibitor / dihydrotestosterone blockers

used in primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate benign prostatic hyperplasia and men pattern hair loss. finasteride ; proscar - 5 mg

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38

finasteride - proscar

used with benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with enlarged prostate. it decreases prostate size and the effect only last if the medicine is taken

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39

antimuscarinic drugs

reduce the symptoms of incontinence by reducing bladder muscle spams

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40

trospium chloride

treat an overactive bladder, by relaxing the muscles in the bladder, trospium improves the ability to control your urination

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41

chemotheraphy

treatment of cancer by means of chemicals that kills cancer cells. 2 types - cytotoxic ; kill - cytostatic ; prevent the growth and reproduction

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42

G0

resting phase, nagpapahinga muna ung cancer cells after manganak

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43

G1

growth ing cancer cells, magpapalakas sya at magpapalaki, so that i could enter the s phase

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44

s phase

synthesis of dna, dna replication

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45

G2

kailangan ng protein kase nagpapalaki ng cancer cells for preparation of mitosis

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46

vinca alkaloids

prevent polymerization

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47

etoposide

topoisomerase II magkaroon ng chain, double strand

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48

cell cycle phase specific

the medication will work only on a specific cell phase

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49

cell cycle phase nonspecific

they could work anywhere on the cell cycle phase

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50

cytotoxic agents

drugs that kill cells directly, work by interrupting cells at places in the growth cycle. drugs resul in cell kill and eventual tumour shrinkage. distrupts processes related to synthesis of dna or its precursors. - antimetabolites ; methotrexate, 5 flourouacil. - antibiotics ; bleomycin

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51

methotrexate - methotrexate

inhibition of enzymes responsible for nucleotide synthesis inlcuding dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, aminoimidazole caaboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and amido phosphoribosyl transferase

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52

bleomycin

antibiotic which has been shown to have antitumor activity. decrease size of tumor

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53

alkylating agents

keep the cell from reproducing by damaging its dns, these drugs work in all phases of the cell cycle. - altretamine, bendamustine, busulfan

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54

carboplatin

undergoes activation inside cells and forms reactive platinum complexes that cause the intra- and inter strand cross linkage of dna molecules within cell

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55

mitotic inhibitor / plant alkaloids

work by stopping cells from dividing to form new cells, but can damage cells in all phases by keeping enzymes from making proteins needed for cell reproduction

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56

vincristine

has been related to the inhibition of microtubule formation in mitotic spindle, resulting in an arrest of dividing cells at the metaphase stage

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57

antitumor antibiotics

treatcancer by affecting the genetic material within cancerous cells. this prevent cancer cells from growng and spreading. - antracyclines ; doxorubicin, epirubicin

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58

doxorubicin

it slows or stops the growth of cancer cells by blocking an enzyme called topo isomerase 2

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59

antibiotic - against life

type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. chemicals that are produced by microorganism that have the capacity to inhibit - static the growth of, or to kill - cidal, bacteria and other microorganisms

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60

antifungal agent

that kills and inhibits the growth of fungi

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61

antiviral agent

that kills or inhibits the growth of virus

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62

antiinfective agent

natural or synthetic that inhibits microorganism or another infective organism

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63

selctive toxicity

ability to kill or inhibit the pathogenic microorganism without affecting tha patient cell, this can be achieved when antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action not present in humans and it is effective at very low concentration

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64

bacteriostatic

static- stay, drugs that inhibit the growth of bacteria. - erythromycin is abroad spectrum, macrolide antibiotic with antibacterial activity

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65

bactericidal

cidal - suicidal, drugs that kill bacteria. aminoglycosides are potent bactericidal antibiotics that act by creating fissures in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell. - strptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin

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66

broad spectrum

against larger group of bacteria

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67

narrow spectrum

against limited group of bacteria.

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68

cell wall

blocks production of peptidoglycan, inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

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69

dna synthesis

inhibits dna synthesis, blocking cell replication

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70

rna synthesis

block transcription

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71

plasma membrane

interferes with bacterial cell membrane or lipopolysaccharide in gram negative outer membrane.

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72

ribosomes

binds to 70s ribosome, blocking protein synthesis

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73

metabolic pathways

compete with bacterial metabolic enzymes, stops synthesis of product

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74

cephalosporins

inhibition of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis by inhibition of penicilin- sensitive enyzmes

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75

narrow- spectrum - basic penicillins

penicillinase-susceptible, limited spectrum; gram + organisms. pinicilim g binds to and inactivates the penicillin binding proteins located inside the bacterial cell wall

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76

very narrow spectrum - anti- staphylococcal penicillins

penicillin-resistant, staphylococcus aureus

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77

broad- spectrum penicillins - aminopenicillin

spectrum includes gram + and gram - bacteria, penicillin-susceptibe

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78

extended-spectrum penicillin - anti pseudomonal penicillin

spectrum includes gram + and gram - organisms, particular pseudomonas aeruginosa, penicillin-susceptibe

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79

alteration of cell memebrane permeability

interferes with cell membranes- cell death. alters permeability leading to leakage of cell and cell death

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80

inhibition of protein synthesis - amikacin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin

binds to the 30s ribosomal subunit- interferes with protein synthesis, must be given parenterally

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81

choramphenicol, licomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin

binds the 50s ribosomal subunit of bacteria and inhibits peptidyl transferase

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82

choramphenicol

is an antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and rickettsia. inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding with ribosomes

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83

quinolones

inhibit dna gyrases or topoisomerases required for supercoiling of dna.

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84

metronidazole

metabolic cytotoxic by products disrupt dna metronidazole diffuses into the organism, inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with dna and causing a loss of helical dna structure and strand breakage

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85

babylan/ shaman

woman mystic who is specialist in the fields of culture, religion, medicine and all kinds of theoretical knowledge about the phenomenon of nature

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86

albularyo

general practitioners and the primary dispenser of health care in the hierarchy of traditional cook doctor in the ph

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87

hilot/ablon

uses massaging technique to sprain fructures and other similar conditions that affect the skeletal system and musculatory system like ligaments

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88

magtatawas

determines cause and nature of illness through the use of potassium alum or tawas, egg, mirror, paper, and candle

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89

faith healers

like esperitista. give prayers lalo no kapag may super natural beings

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90

suob

use of steam para mawala daw toxins

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91

ventosa or suction cupping

involves special heated cups that form a seal or vacuum to help ease sore muscles

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92

herbalism

use of leafs - tapal

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93

acupuncture

involves the insertion of very thin needles through the skin at strategic points on the body

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94

aromatherphy

is a holistic healing treatment that uses natural plant extracts and oils to promote health and wellbeing its called essential oil theraphy like lavander or eucayptus

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95

chiropractic treatment

focuses on the relationshi between the body’s main structures the skeleton, the muscles and the nerves and the patients health

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96

patience and endurance - tiyaga

ability to tolerate uncertain situations even if they feel sick or not drinking medicine

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97

courage - lakas ng loob

magiging ok din ang lahat malakas ako

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98

humor - tatawanan ang problema

capacity to laugh at oneself kahit na may sakit

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99

fatalistic resignation - bahala na

view of illness and suffering are unavoidable and predestined will of God

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100

conceding to the wiches of the collective - pakikisama

to maintain group harmony to make them feel well

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