English III Midterm

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euphemism

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English

11th

152 Terms

1

euphemism

substituting less pungent words for harsh ones with ironic effect

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2

metonymy

identifying something by replacing it with something closely associated with it

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3

paradox

a statement that appears to be contradictory but has some truth

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4

alliteration

the repetition of the same sound at the beginning of successive words or syllables within words

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5

assonance

involves the repetition of vowel sounds within words

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6

consonance

refers to the repetition of ending consonant sounds in successive words (ends of syllables or words)

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7

schemes

arrangements of ideas, words, or phrases that are stylistically effective

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8

chiasmus

grammatical structure of the first clause or phrase is reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words

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9

antithesis

the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas

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10

asyndeton

conjunctions are omitted in stylistically effective ways, but they can also be omitted for emphasis

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11

ellipsis

the omission of a words or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context

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12

anaphora

the regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses

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13

polysyndeton

the use of many conjunctions to slow the pace (opposite of asyndeton)

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14

periodic sentence

a sentence withholding its independent clause until the end

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15

loose sentence

the modifiers follow the independent clause

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16

syntax

the way in which words are arranged into sentences

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17

coherence

a principle demanding that the parts of any sentence, paragraph, or composition be so arranged that the meaning of the whole may be immediately clear and intelligible

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18

fluency

occurs as a result of sentences flowing together smoothly; achieved through a variety of lengths, structures, beginnings, and techniques

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19

telegraphic

5 words or shorter

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20

short

5-10 words

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21

medium

10-20 words

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22

long and involved

21+ words

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23

antecedent

the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers

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24

act

a major division of a drama

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25

antagonist

a character or force in conflict with a main character; a villain

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26

anticlimax

an arrangement of details such that something less than expected appears at the point where something greater is expected

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27

antihero

a main character who does not have the usual good qualities that are expected in a hero

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28

archetype

a detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious in order to evoke strong responses

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29

aside

a short speech delivered by an actor in a play, expressing the character’s thoughts to the audience; not intended to be heard by other actors on stage

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30

authorial aside

a written digression, a time in a novel or drama when the author steps outside of the story to provide commentary or insight

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31

catastrophe

the conclusion of a play, particularly of a tragedy

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32

catharsis

the process by which an unhealthy emotional state produced by an imbalance of feelings is corrected and emotional health is restored to a character

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33

flat character

embodies a single quality and does not develop in the course of a story

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34

round character

demonstrates some complexity and develops or changes in the course of a work

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35

static character

does not change

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36

dynamic character

changes

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37

climax

the high point of interest or suspense in a literary work

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38

comic relief

a humorous scene, incident, or speech in the course of a serious fiction or drama, introduced, it is sometimes thought, to provide relief from emotional intensity and, by contrast, to heighten the seriousness of the story

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39

external conflict

a character struggles against an outside force

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40

internal conflict

a character struggles against himself/herself

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41

crisis

the point at which the opposing forces that create the conflict interlock in the decisive action on which the plot will turn

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42

denouement

the final unraveling of the plot; the solution of a mystery; a explanation or outcome

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43

dilemma

a situation that requires a person to decide between two equally attractive or equally unattractive alternatives

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44

direct characterization

the writer tells us directly what a character’s personality is like

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45

indirect characterization

a writer allows us to exercise our own judgment by putting clues together to infer what a character is like, through how he appears, speaks, thinks, feels, relates to other characters, or acts

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46

deus ex machina

the employment of some unexpected and improbable incident to make things turn out right

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47

epigraph

a saying or statement on the title page of a work or used as a heading for a chapter or other section of a work that hints at its theme

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48

epilogue

concluding statements or section at the end of a narrative

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49

epiphany

a moment of sudden revelation or insight experienced by a character

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50

exposition

writing/speech that explains, informs, or presents information; the element of plot that provides essential background information early in a narrative

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51

falling action

follows the climax

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52

flashback

a section of a literary work that interrupts the sequence of events to relate an event from an earlier time

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53

foil

a character who contrasts with another character

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54

foreshadowing

the presentation of material in such a way that the reader is prepared for what is to come later in the work

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55

frame device/story

a story within a story

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56

hamartia

the error, frailty, mistaken judgement, or misstep which brings about the downfall of the hero in a tragedy

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57

hero

a character whose actions are inspiring or noble

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58

hubris

overweening pride or insolence that can result in the misfortune of the protagonist of a tragedy

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59

incident

an event

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60

intercalary chapters

inserted chapters that perform a different function from the main chapters of a novel

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61

interior monologue

a narrative technique that records a character’s internal flow of thoughts, memories, and ideas; a longish passage of uninterrupted thought

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62

monologue

a speech by one character in a play, story, or poem

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63

motif

the repetition or variations of an image or idea in a work used to develop theme or characters

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64

motivation

a reason that explains or partly explains a character’s thoughts, feelings, actions, or behavior

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65

narrator

the one who tells the story

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66

narrative

the story or narrated account

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67

pacing

movement of a literary piece from one point or section to another

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68

persona

figuratively a mask adopted by a character who pretends to be something other than what he or she is

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69

plot

the action of a narrative or drama

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70

first person participant pov

a character in the story tells the story as he/she experiences it

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71

innocent eye narrator

the character telling the story may be a child or a developmentally disabled individual; the contrast between what this narrator perceives and what the reader understands may create dramatic irony

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72

objective or dramatic pov

a narrator who is totally impersonal tells the story, with no comment on any characters or events; it is like the pov of a movie camera; what we know is only what the character might see and record

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73

third person omniscient pov

an all-knowing narrator who is able to know, see, and tell all, including the inner thoughts and feelings of any or all characters

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74

third person limited pov

the author tells the story in the third person and yet presents it as it as seen and understood by a single character, restricting information to what that character sees, hears, feels, and thinks

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75

prologue

an introduction to a novel or drama

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76

protagonist

the main character in a literary work

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77

resolution

the events following the climax and concurrent with the falling action when all or most of the conflicts have been settled

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78

rising action

the part of a dramatic plot that has to do with the complication and the action that leads to crisis and climax

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79

scene

the division of the act within the play; a real or fictional episode

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80

setting

the time, place, and environment in which action takes place

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81

soliloquy

a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on a stage

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82

stage directions

the specific instructions a playwright includes concerning sets, characterization, delivery, etc.

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83

stereotype/stock character

a fixed idea or conception of a character or an idea that does not allow for any individuality and is often based on religious, social, or racial prejudices

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84

stream-of-consciousness

a mode of narration that incorporates the total range of awareness and emotive-mental response of an individual

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85

structure

the organization and form of a work

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86

subplot

a subordinate or minor story in a longer piece of fiction

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87

suspense

a feeling of uncertainty and curiosity about what will happen next in a story

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88

theme

a central message or insight into life revealed through a literary work that can be stated directly or implied

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89

tragedy

a work of literature, especially a play, that results in a catastrophe for the main character; the cause of a tragedy is usually a tragic flaw, or weakness, in the hero’s character

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90

tragic flaw

the theory that there is a flaw in the tragic hero that causes his or her downfall

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91

turning point

a point in a work in which a very significant change occurs; sometimes concurrent with crisis

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92

villian

an evil character, potentially or actually guilty of serious crimes

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93

allegory

the use of characters or events to represent ideas or principles in a story, play, or picture

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94

anecdote

a brief story about an interesting, amusing, or strange event, which is told to entertain or to make a point

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95

aphorism

a terse saying embodying a general truth, or astute observation, about human nature

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96

autobiography

an account of the writer’s own life

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97

biography

an account of someone’s life written by another person

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98

comedy

a work of literature, especially a play, usually humorous and having a happy ending

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99

diary

a day by day chronicle of events; a journal

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100

discourse

a mode or category of expression

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