AP Lit Antigone Exam Flashcards

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Sophocles birth

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English

12th

108 Terms

1

Sophocles birth

497 BCE in Athens

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type of government in Antigone

exclusionary democracy

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sophocles stance on equality

aware of the inequalities in Athens

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4

Sophocles' plays include attempts to warn Greeks

of divine retribution that would be a result of their prejudices and injustice to the poor

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5

Antigone explores themes of

pride, loyalty, and personal responsibility

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6

Antigone - third part of trilogy which includes

Oedipus Rex and Oedipus at Colonus

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*Antigone's conflict

the relationship of the individual's conscience to the demands of the state

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Gods were not all-powerful but

subject to fate and each other's will

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9

They were bound to enforce an ancient body of laws and traditions such as

treatment of relatives

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10

The conflict in Antigone stems from the

"unnatural" occurrence of two brothers waging war against each other and ultimately killing each other

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11

Greeks belief on free will

free will was no more powerful than destiny

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12

Anagnorisis

Hero's epiphany, realization of error that has resulted in tragic downfall

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13

Peripeteia

Reversal of fortune and downfall of tragic hero and events leading to that downfall (Creon, due to his stubborn insistence that his law be obeyed and his blindness to see that his law is in direct opposition to moral law, loses his only surviving son, his wife, and any chance of happiness. He ends up a broken man.)

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14

Catharsis

deep suffering witnessed by the audience leads to a feeling of purgation, and draining of emotions, leaving them with a new sense of self-awareness and the ability to better understand life. Ironically, the audience feels better after viewing a tragedy (final renewal).

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15

Hamartia

tragic flaw of hero, usually wrath or pride, that leads to his downfall. This error in judgement or perception, the inability to see his flaw or foresee the consequences of his actions, leads to the hero's downfall.

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16

Hubris

exaggerated arrogance, self-pride, or self-confidence which often results in fatal retribution. Hubris against the gods is often the flaw of heroes in Greek tragedy and the cause of their destruction.

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17

Greek Drama

all male casts, in daylight with minimal sets/props, no violene, masks

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18

Three Unities of Aristotle

A) Unity of time - actions of play within 24 hours, continuous time

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19

B) Unity of place - action limited to single setting

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C) Unity of subject - one main plot focused on main character

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21

Deus ex machina - (god from the machine)

Rescue of characters from complications beyond their abilities to resolve

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22

Elements of Chorus

A) 15-20 men represented citizens

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23

B) Always onstage - sang and danced

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24

C) Leader who spoke with main character or rest of the Chorus

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Functions of the chorus

Set the tone of the drama

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Give background info

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Recall events of the past

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Interpret and summarize events

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Ask questions

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Offer opinions

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Give advice

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Stay objective

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33

Act as jury of elders/wise men who listen to evidence in play and reach a moralistic conclusion

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34

Sophocles intent with Oedipus Rex

to illustrate conflict between fate and free will and natural and human law.

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35

Antigone's parents

Oedipus and Jocasta

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36

Oedipus parents

Laius and Jocasta.

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37

Why were Laius and his sons cursed

Because of his poor treatment of his host and his host's son

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38

Opd Rex beginning

in medias res" (in the middle- plauge)

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39

who ruled Thebes as a triumvirate

Jocasta, Oedipus, and Creon

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40

when did Oedipus seek advice from the Oracle @ Delphi (shrine where deity reveals hidden knowledge). Then the truth was revealed.

only after a famine

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41

*Oedipus' sons, _____, were cursed by their father by twice showing him disrespect.

Polynices and Eteocles

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42

What happened when Oedipus and Jocasta realized the truth

Oedipus blinded himself, and Jocasta committed suicide.

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43

what happened when the two brothers gained control of the throne

Eteocles refused to relinquish his power at the end of the year; Polynices then raised an army in the city of Argos and attacked Thebes. They killed each other in battle

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44

Oedipus translation

"swollen foot" He appears with a limp because his feet were pinned together when he was a baby.

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45

what theories of Freud come from Oed Rex

the Oedipus Complex and the Electra Complex

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46

Oedipus characteristics

intelligence, confidence, rashness, and suffering

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47

considered the greatest surviving Greek Tragedy

Oedipus Rex

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48

tragic hero

a character of noble status and greatness of character, usually a man, the hero occupies a position of wealth, status, an power in his society AND he must exemplify the traits of nobility and virtue as part of his innate character

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49

tragic hero through the audience eyes

the tragic hero is great, but not perfect. The audience must be able to sympathize with the tragic hero as a person like them, but with a higher position in society

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50

often, the tragic hero's hamartia involves

hubris

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51

tragic hero misfortune:

the hero's misfortune is not wholly deserved; the punishment exceeds the crime

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52

result of the hero's loss

increase in awareness, some gain in self-knowledge, some discovery on the part of the tragic hero (anagnorisis)

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53

greek drama importance

not just entertainment but a part of community celebration and religious ritual

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54

Setting of Oedipus Rex

Thebes 430 BCE

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Oedipus

tragic hero of the story, became the King of Thebes after having defeated the Sphinx. Once king he married the queen Jocasta and had 4 children with her

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King Laius

King of Thebes prior to Oedipus and late husband to Queen Jocasta. He left his son to die on Mount Cithaeron because of a prophecy that he would kill Laius and sleep with the queen

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Priest

high priest of thebes- medium between the people and the gods

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58

Creon in Oedipus Rex

brother of Jocasta and brother in law to Oedipus

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59

Messenger in Oedipus Rex

an old man and herald from Corinth (where Oedipus grew up)

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60

servant in Oedipus Rex

an old shepherd who fled the attack of Laius and saved Oedipus as a baby

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61

why, according to Antigone, is Zeus tormenting her and her sister

Oedipus' and the brother's actions

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62

what side does the chorus favor?

Creon (they are citizens of Thebes)

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63

one can infer from the passage that Thebes was a city with

seven gates

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64

the purpose of the chorus's opening speech is to

provide plot explanation

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65

according to the Chorus, the Argive army failed to conquer Thebes because of

hubris

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66

this passage (Antigone) contains all of the following except

humor

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67

creon's speech indicated that, above all, he values

loyalty to the state

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68

The Chorus's introduction of Haemon suggests that Creon

had at least one other son, who died

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69

Creon's long speech contains all of the following except

sagacity

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70

In this passage, Sophocles portrays the Chorus of theban Elders as

weak and indecisive

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71

Haemon telling his father, "Then she'll die-and in her death kill someone else" exposes Creon's

paranoia

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72

In this passage, Haemon's behavior toward his father progresses from

cautious to combative

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73

The Chrous's reaction to Eurydice's suggests that

all excuses are dangerous

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74

the audience only now learns of the death of Maegareos in order to

add to Creon's utter loss

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75

What does the Chorus finally conclude about fate vs. free will

the chorus remain ambivalent

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76

at the revelation of Eurydice's suicide, Creon experiences his

anagnorisis

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77

the "foolish man" to whom Creon refers in line 92 is

himself

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78

born in 469 BCE

Socrates

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79

considered strange and responsible for philosophy today

Socrates

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80

did not write a single piece

Socrates

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81

death and trial became the catalyst for the discipline of philosophy

Socrates

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82

esteemed as highly as religious leaders

Socrates

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an eccentric figure who wandered the marketplace and other public areas in shabby clothes

Socrates

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84

Socrates questioned topics of

virtue, love, courage, wisdom

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85

encouraged everyone of all ages to join him in his question and answer method to discover truths

Socrates

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86

"Wisdom begins in wonder" "Know thyself" "No evil can happen to a good man, either in life or after death" and "The only wisdom is in knowing you know nothing"

Socrates

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87

the "Apology" is a

monoloque where Socrates explains himself, his final address to the court

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88

refused several opportunities to escape from prison and carried out his own execution by drinking poison made from hemlock

Socrates

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89

felt his enemies condemned him to escape accusation and avoid giving accounts of their lives

Socrates

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90

in 399 convicted of corrupting the minds of his young students

Socrates

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a student of Socrates and founder of the Academy

Plato

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92

Plato greatest works

"The Republic" and "Dialogues"

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writings examined concepts like freedom of conscience, the nature of reality, the existence of the soul, the ideal government, and how to live a virtuous and happy life

Plato

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94

The Republic is based on

a Utopian society with three classes: philosopher kings, courageous guardians, and appetitive workers

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95

theory of Ideals and Allegory of the Cave

Plato

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ideas are the only reality

Plato

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founded the Lyceum

Aristotle

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Order of philosophers

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

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lived in athens during the Golden Age of Philosophy

Socrates

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100

What was Socrates accused of?

corrupting the youth; impiety

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